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Home » ScienceLast Published: Tue, Nov 07 2017. 06 19 PM IST Earth will turn into fireball by 2600: Stephen Hawking

A file photo of British physicist Stephen Hawking who appealed to investors to back his plans to travel to the closest star outside the solar system, with the hope that a habitable planet might be orbiting it. Photo: Reuters

A file photo of British physicist Stephen Hawking who appealed to investors to back his plans to travel to the closest star outside the solar system, with the hope that a habitable planet might be orbiting it. Photo: Reuters

Beijing: British physicist Stephen Hawking has warned that the human race will perish on earth as growing population and massive power consumption would turn the planet into a sizzling fireball in less than 600 years.

To ensure the survival of our species for another million years, humans must “boldly go where no one has gone before,” Hawking said. Our planet will turn into a ball of fire because of our soaring energy consumption as the population soars, the world renowned scientist said in a video appearance at the Tencent WE Summit in Beijing.

Hawking appealed to investors to back his plans to travel to the closest star outside the solar system, with the hope that a habitable planet might be orbiting it, The Sun reported. Alpha Centauri is one of the closest stars to our solar system, located four billion light-years away.

Scientists believe that it may host planets that could foster life, just like earth. Hawking is backing Breakthrough Starshot, a venture to reach this system within two decades using a tiny aircraft that could travel at the speed of light. “Such a system could reach Mars in less than an hour, or reach Pluto in days, pass Voyager in under a week and reach Alpha Centauri in just over 20 years,” said Hawking.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.


20-year-old Russian claims he lived on Mars before he was reborn on Earth

thanks : Zee news

20-year-old Russian claims he lived on Mars before he was reborn on Earth



New Delhi: Confounding experts with his knowledge on outer space for nearly 20 years, a Russian has now baffled scientists by claiming that he lived on Mars before he was reborn on Earth.

According to his parents, Boriska Kipriyanovich was able to speak months after he was born and would often discuss subjects they had never taught him, such as alien civilisations.

By the age of two, he was able to read, write and draw.

As per a report in the Daily Mail, his mother, who herself is a doctor, said the first indication that he was special came a couple of weeks after birth, as he was able to hold his own head up unassisted.

Claiming that he lived on ‘war-ravaged’ Mars, Boriska says Martians – measuring about seven-feet tall – are immortal and still live undergound on the Red Planet and breathe in carbon dioxide.

They stop ageing after the age of 35 years, he said.

As a schoolboy, Boriska explained how the Martians had a strong connection to the ancient Egyptians on Earth and how he had once visited the planet as a pilot.

He said that life on Earth will change dramatically when the Great Sphinx monument in Giza is ‘unlocked’, adding that the opening mechanism is hidden behind an ear, the report said.

dedicated by:

Kavignar Thanigai.

Treat Yourself to a Meteor Shower



t’s been a long week. Here’s how to find some relief in the sky.

riday night (Oct. 20), the annual Orionid meteor shower will hit its peak. Rock and ice debris will splinter off the famous Halley’s Comet and burn up in Earth’s atmosphere, with the brightest and most intense hours of the light show occurring just before dawn on Saturday.

The Orionids isn’t the greatest meteor shower to behold—the Perseids back in August and the upcoming Geminids in December are more notable for 2017—but this year is particularly good for watching the Orionids. The moon, in a waning phase, will be a bare sliver in the sky and should be largely invisible for most of the night. That creates a particularly dark sky, excellent for watching shooting stars torch up the black screen above.

The Orionids are named after the constellation Orion, and, as you might have guessed, the best place to look for the shower is around that constellation, which should rise above the eastern horizon after 11 p.m. local time. From 2 a.m. until sunrise, when the meteor shower will be at its most peak, you should be able to spot the constellation high in the south-southeastern sky. The shower will be particularly concentrated above Betelgeuse, the second-brightest star in Orion, which comprises the Mighty Hunter’s left shoulder.

During peak hours, you should be able to spot 15 to 30 shooting stars every hour. Because the Orionids are a more muted spectacle, rural and suburban areas with limited light pollution are the best places to watch the meteor shower. City dwellers will have a difficult time seeing anything but the brightest scorches of light. And regardless of where you are, you’ll need to pay very close attention: The Orionids are among the fastest meteor showers, racing through the sky at about over 147,600 mph. Blink and you’ll miss them.

The Orionids run through Oct. 26, so even if you miss Friday night’s peak, you might still have a chance to watch the stragglers burn through the night for a few more days.

dedicated by

Kavingar  Thanigai.

Planet nine could be our solar system’s missing ‘super earth’

Planet nine could turn out to be our solar system’s missing super earth — a planet with a mass higher than the earth’s, but substantially lower than the masses of ice giants Uranus and Neptune


Computer simulations of the solar system with planet nine included show there should be more objects tilted with respect to the solar plane. Photo: Reuters


Computer simulations of the solar system with planet nine included show there should be more objects tilted with respect to the solar plane. Photo: Reuters

Washington: The yet-to-be discovered planet nine may be 10 times the mass of the earth and 20 times away from the sun than Neptune, a study suggests. According to researchers, planet nine could turn out to be our solar system’s missing super earth—a planet with a mass higher than the earth’s, but substantially lower than the masses of ice giants Uranus and Neptune.

The signs so far are indirect, mainly its gravitational footprints, but that adds up to a compelling case, they said.

“There are now five different lines of observational evidence pointing to the existence of planet nine,” said Konstantin Batygin, a planetary astrophysicist at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in the US.

“If you were to remove this explanation and imagine planet nine does not exist, then you generate more problems than you solve. All of a sudden, you have five different puzzles, and you must come up with five different theories to explain them,” said Batygin.

Six known objects in the distant Kuiper Belt, a region of icy bodies stretching from Neptune outward towards interstellar space, all have elliptical orbits pointing in the same direction, researchers said.

However, these orbits also are tilted the same way, about 30 degrees “downward” compared to the pancake-like plane within which the planets orbit the sun, they said.

Computer simulations of the solar system with planet nine included show there should be more objects tilted with respect to the solar plane.

The tilt would be on the order of 90 degrees, as if the plane of the solar system and these objects formed an “X” when viewed edge-on.

Caltech graduate student, Elizabeth Bailey, showed that planet nine could have tilted the planets of our solar system during the last 4.5 billion years.

In the study published in the Astronomical Journal, researchers wondered why the plane in which the planets orbit is tilted about 6 degrees compared to the sun’s equator.

“Over long periods of time, planet nine will make the entire solar system plane precess or wobble, just like a top on a table,” Batygin said.

The last telltale sign of planet nine’s presence involves the solar system’s contrarians: objects from the Kuiper Belt that orbit in the opposite direction from everything else in the solar system, researchers said.

Planet nine’s orbital influence would explain why these bodies from the distant Kuiper Belt end up “polluting” the inner Kuiper Belt, they said.

“No other model can explain the weirdness of these high- inclination orbits,” Batygin said. “It turns out that planet nine provides a natural avenue for their generation. These things have been twisted out of the solar system plane with help from planet nine and then scattered inward by Neptune,” said Batygin.

thanks: live mint

Raghu Ram Rajan : best wishes to get Nobel Prize: Kavignar Thanigai.

Being Tamilian and born from a humble Tamil Family, at Bhobal,Only 54 years old Raghu Ram Rajan going to get Nobel Prize tomorrow or coming one or two years. That is inevitable. His Father R. Govindarajan is a I.P.S Officer worked for Indian RAW Research and analysing Wing at Belgium, Sri Lanka and in India Son Became as a Economist. He completed his IIT Electronics Engineer and IIM management course and received Ph.D at IIM  at U.S.A.


We very proud about him as Indian and Tamil born family’s real seed of the soil.


with honest

Kavignar Thanigai.

Raghuram Rajan among probables for Nobel Prize for economics: report

Raghuram Rajan is one of the six economists on the list of probable Nobel Prize for economics winners complied by Clarivate Analytics
Raghuram Rajan, who at 40 was the first non-western and the youngest to become the chief economist at the IMF, shot to big fame three years after he predicted a financial crisis at an annual gathering of economists and bankers in the US in 2005. Photo: Abhijit Bhatlekar/Mint

Raghuram Rajan, who at 40 was the first non-western and the youngest to become the chief economist at the IMF, shot to big fame three years after he predicted a financial crisis at an annual gathering of economists and bankers in the US in 2005. Photo: Abhijit Bhatlekar/Mint

New Delhi: Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor Raghuram Rajan features in the list of probables for this year’s Nobel Prize in Economics, The Wall Street Journal has reported.

He is one of the six economists on the list of probable winners complied by Clarivate Analytics, a company that does academic and scientific research and maintains a list of dozens of possible Nobel Prize winners based on research citations. The entry to the list does not guarantee that Rajan is a front-runner but he is a probable who stands a chance to win.

Rajan, whose three year term as RBI governor ended on 4 September 2016, is considered a candidate for his “contributions illuminating the dimensions of decisions in corporate finance”, Clarivate said. The Nobel Prize in Economics will be announced on Monday.

According to Clarivate Analytics, the list of possible Nobel Prize winners based on research citations include Colin Camerer of the California Institute of Technology and George Loewenstein of Carnegie Mellon University (for pioneering research in behavioural economics and in neuroeconomics); Robert Hall of Stanford University (for his analysis of worker productivity and studies of recessions and unemployment); and Michael Jensen of Harvard, Stewart Myers of MIT and Raghuram Rajan of the University of Chicago (for their contributions illuminating the dimensions of decisions in corporate finance).

Rajan, who at 40 was the first non-western and the youngest to become the chief economist at the International Monetary Fund, shot to big fame three years after he predicted a financial crisis at an annual gathering of economists and bankers in the US in 2005. He was appointed RBI governor by the previous United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government in 2013 and although he wanted a second term he was not offered an extension, which most of his predecessors got, by the current National Democratic Alliance (NDA) regime.

He is currently the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the Booth School of Business, University of Chicago.


live mint E.Paper.


NASA missions detect massive aurora and radiation spike on Mars

NASA missions detect massive aurora and radiation spike on Mars



Ultraviolet data collected by NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft was used to construct these images showing ultraviolet emissions...
Ultraviolet data collected by NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft was used to construct these images showing ultraviolet emissions before (left) and during (right) the storm(Credit:NASA/Goddard/University of Colorado)


Earlier this month, NASA probes in orbit and on the Martian surface detected an incredibly bright global aurora as a powerful solar storm struck Mars. The aurora was accompanied by a powerful dose of radiation that would have posed a significant danger to humans exploring the Red Planet.

Between September 12 and 13, NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft observed the Martian atmosphere as a magnificent ultraviolet aurora 25 times brighter than any seen by the probe since entering Mars’ orbit in 2014 illuminated the planet.

The September 11 solar storm, known as a coronal mass ejection (CME), that prompted the aurora was so powerful that it was detected on Earth, despite the fact that our planet was on the opposite side of the Sun during the event.

Artist's impression of NASA's MAVEN spacecraft

A CME occurs when magnetic fields on the Sun explosively realign, throwing a colossal cloud of magnetized particles, also known as plasma, into space. This mass of plasma travels at millions of miles per hour and, upon colliding with a planet’s magnetic field, can trigger a geomagnetic storm, during which particles trapped in a planet’s atmosphere are released.

The release of the particles causes a reaction in the atmosphere, which triggers a release of photons that can create a breathtaking aurora. MAVEN observed the Martian aurora in ultraviolet light.

“When a solar storm hits the Martian atmosphere, it can trigger auroras that light up the whole planet in ultraviolet light,” says Sonal Jain of the University of Colorado Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and member of MAVEN’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph instrument team. “The recent one lit up Mars like a light bulb. An aurora on Mars can envelope the entire planet because Mars has no strong magnetic field like Earth’s to concentrate the aurora near polar regions. The energetic particles from the Sun also can be absorbed by the upper atmosphere, increasing its temperature and causing it to swell up.”

NASA graphic displaying the brightness of the aurora at different atmospheric altitudes

While MAVEN and a number of other spacecraft watched the fireworks from orbit, NASA’s Curiosity rover recorded a more sinister aspect of the solar storm from the Red Planet’s surface. As the solar storm struck Mars, the rover’s Radiation Assessment Director (RAD) tracked the amount of radiation reaching its surface.

Solar storms are known to significantly heighten the amount of radiation penetrating the Martian atmosphere, and at the peak of the storm the RAD instrument detected surface radiation levels over double the intensity of any that it had ever detected since touching down on the Martian surface in 2012.

NASA is striving towards a long-term goal of putting humankind on Mars, and exposure to cosmic radiation is one of the key health issues to be faced by astronauts during any potential interplanetary mission. The agency and its partners will have to understand and cope with these radiation strikes if they hope to keep their astronauts healthy as they explore the surface of the Red Planet.


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NASA just dedicated a new facility to the heroine from “Hidden Figures”


NASA’s Curiosity rover tracked solar storm radiation levels from the Martian surface

Had explorers been present on the planet at the time of such a storm, they would have been advised to seek shelter.

“If you were outdoors on a Mars walk and learned that an event like this was imminent, you would definitely want to take shelter, just as you would if you were on a space walk outside the International Space Station,” says RAD Principal Investigator Don Hassler of the Southwest Research Institute’s Boulder, Colorado, office. “To protect our astronauts on Mars in the future, we need to continue to provide this type of space weather monitoring there.”

NASA believes that the observations made in the wake of the September 11 solar storm will lead to a greater understanding of how Mars’ original atmosphere was lost to space, leaving it a dry, barren world. It will also inform scientists’ understanding of the current Martian environment, and the threats posed to future explorers by powerful space weather events.

Source: NASA

thanks: Anthony Wood

Dedicated by:Kavignar Thanigai.


  • Stanislav Petrov was credited with helping prevent US-Russia nuclear war.
  • Petrov dismissed a warning about US nuclear strike as a false alarm.
  • The probe proved that Petrov was right.

File photo: Stanislav Petrov (R) at an award ceremony in Germany.

MOSCOW: Stanislav Petrov, a Soviet military officer who is widely credited with helping prevent a nuclear war with the United States, has died aged 77, his son said on Tuesday.

Petrov, whose extraordinary story was told in a documentary titled “The Man Who Saved the World”, received several international awards, was honoured at the United Nations and met Hollywood superstars such as Robert De Niro and Matt Damon.

Yet Petrov lived in a small town outside Moscow and died in relative obscurity on May 19, his death making headlines in Russia and abroad only months later when a German friend wrote a blog post about his death.

In September 1983, Petrov was an officer on duty at a secret command centre south of Moscow when an alarm went off signalling that the United States had launched intercontinental ballistic missiles.

The officer — who had only a few minutes to make a decision and was not sure about the incoming data — dismissed the warning as a false alarm.

Had he told his commanders of an imminent US nuclear strike, the Soviet leadership — locked in an arms race with Washington — might have ordered a retaliatory strike.

Instead the 44-year-old lieutenant colonel reported a system malfunction and an investigation that followed afterwards proved he was right.

Petrov came home only several days later but did not tell his family about what had happened.

“He came home knackered but did not tell us anything,” his son Dmitry said.

Several months later Petrov received an award “for services to the Fatherland” but the incident at the control centre was kept secret for many years.

In 1984, he left the military and settled in the town of Fryazino some 20 kilometres (12 miles) northeast of Moscow.

Petrov’s story only came to light after the fall of the Soviet Union in 1991 and over the years he became the subject of numerous media reports in Russia and abroad.

A modest, self-effacing man, Petrov never thought of himself as a hero, said his son.

“My father could not have cared less. He was always surprised that people were making a hero out of him,” he said.

“He simply did his job well,” Petrov’s son said, adding that his father received some hundred letters from Europeans thanking him for averting the outbreak of a nuclear war.


The Man Who Saved the World”, a documentary film directed by Danish filmmaker Peter Anthony and narrated by US actor Kevin Costner, was released in 2014.


Footage of the elderly Petrov is combined with re-enactments of what happened at that secret control centre in 1983.


incredible and unbelievable. R I P .
Providence somewhere Blessed somebody to make a knack which turned out to be correct
N Renganathan


“I categorically refused to be guilty of starting World War III,” Petrov said in the film. “I felt like I was being led to an execution,” he said of those dramatic moments.


Strange signals were just spotted coming from a distant galaxy

Strange signals were just spotted coming from a distant galaxy


Long ago, 15 bright radio pulses emerged from a dwarf galaxy about 3 billion light years away from Earth. Last Saturday, a telescope in a remote area of West Virginia picked up those signals from a distant corner of the universe, and yesterday, a group of astronomers and astrophysicists shared preliminary results on their observations.

This is a newly active period from an unknown source that astronomers labeled FRB 121102. It’s a source of fast radio bursts (FRBs). We still don’t know much about FRBs. They were only first detected in 2001, and the first time we saw one—this one, in fact—repeat was in 2015. FRBs are exactly what they sound like: super fast, really powerful burst of radio signals. But we have no idea what causes them.

“The repeating FRB source is an anomaly in the population right now; it’s the only one of its kind,” says Emily Petroff, a post-doctoral researcher at the Netherlands Institute for Radio Astronomy. Petroff was not involved in the current observations but was part of the project that put together the definitive catalog of Fast Radio Bursts last year.

“We’re trying hard to find more (either by checking to see if other FRBs repeat, or trying to find more FRBs and monitor them),” Petroff wrote in an email. “Keep in mind that the population is still really small. Only 30 FRB sources have been found, from 29 of those we’ve only seen one burst, from one of them we’ve seen over 200!”

To have 15 bursts occur from the same source in a short period of time is exciting because it hasn’t been seen before, and these particular bursts are also coming in at a much higher frequency than normal, peaking at about seven gigahertz.

“Bursts from this source have never been seen at this high a frequency,” Andrew Siemion, astrophysicist and director of the Breakthrough Listen program said in a statement.

press release put out by the Breakthrough Listen organization, which funded and organized the project says; “Possible explanations for FRBs range from outbursts from rotating neutron stars with extremely strong magnetic fields, to more speculative ideas that they are directed energy sources used by extraterrestrial civilizations to power spacecraft.”

Wait…aliens? Really? Not so fast.

Bringing aliens into the conversation before eliminating every other possibility might seem surprising, but not if you consider the source of this new information. The Breakthrough Listen Initiative is a $100 million project with the express directive of looking for signals from extraterrestrial civilizations. So upon finding something strange and not immediately explainable, of course they’re going to bring up aliens. It’s their job to hold that up as a possibility until the evidence shows otherwise.


But there are plenty of other avenues of research that provide possible explanations for the repeating burst. Many of these are thrilling and exciting, and most of them are definitely not aliens.

“With any mystery signal from space comes the inevitable question about extraterrestrial life. At the moment there’s no evidence that these are encoded messages or anything like that,” Petroff says. “And when dealing with a new phenomenon, the simplest explanations—such as emission from an astrophysical source (and not a spaceship)—are usually the best place to start.”

It could be an object the size of a city but with the mass greater than the sun, the last spinning remnant of a star that went supernova. These neutron stars, which can fully rotate on their axis tens of thousands of times per minute, can sometimes fling bright pulses out into the universe, or have magnetic fields so powerful that they earn the name magnetars. Some scientists think that FRB’s could be emitted early on in a magnetar’s development.

“Most of the current theories for FRBs are centered around compact, energetic objects in other galaxies,” Petroff says. “The two most compact and energetic things we know about are black holes and neutron stars; they also happen to be two of the most extreme types of objects in the universe. Some theories are that these are giant pulses from a very young energetic neutron star, or that the FRB signals that don’t repeat could be produced when two neutron stars collide. At the moment there are more theories than there are FRB sources, though.”

Whatever the signal is, it started on its journey an extraordinarily long time ago. So even if we can’t convince you to get off the but-wait-this-could-be-aliens train, we’ve got some bad news.

This source of fast radio bursts was only discovered in November of 2012, and it was only shown to repeat in 2015. That’s not a whole lot of time to figure out what the baseline for these signals might be, which is one key reason that researchers can’t make a definitive call yet. Continuing to observe the star over time can help them get more data, and maybe even eventually figure out what it is.

Let’s be really really clear here: This new discovery isn’t likely to be aliens. Even Breakthrough Listen called the idea that the signals came from aliens ‘speculative.’ And if it’s something other than aliens (trust us: it will be something other than aliens), that shouldn’t take away from our excitement about the discovery of something new and wonderful and strange.

“The last time we had a cosmic mystery source like this was with the reporting of the discovery of gamma ray bursts in the 1970s,” Petroff says. “Then it took decades to figure out some of the basic things like where they were coming from and what caused them. FRBs were discovered only 10 years ago, and we’ve already learned so much about them. And we’re finding more and more of them every year. Even just the past 12 months has been a complete whirlwind of activity and new results. Lots of new telescopes are coming online in the next 6 to 12 months that are going to find hundreds of FRBs per year, so it’s going to be an incredible time!”

So don’t be disappointed that we haven’t found aliens yet. Instead, get hyped about everything we’re learning about this wild, wonderful universe.

thanks NEWS

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.



Gorakhpur Hospital Tragedy: Meet the Doctor Who Emptied His Own Pockets to Save Children From Dying

The death toll, 30 children in just 48 hours and more than 60 five days later, might have been a lot higher if not for the efforts and humanity of one man.

In a horrific event, 30 children admitted at the Baba Raghav Das (BRD) Medical College in Gorakhpur, reportedly suffocated to death in just 48 hours. These children were suffering from encephalitis, a fatal disease that is endemic to Gorakhpur and visits every year during monsoon, taking thousands of lives with it. But these children did not succumb to the disease. They died because their oxygen supply was cut off by the supplier of oxygen cylinders to the hospital, as his dues amounting to ₹68,58,596 had not been cleared.

While the hospital administration and UP government are trying their best to pass the buck around, we wish bring to everyone’s notice the one man, Dr. Kafeel Ahmed, who managed to save several lives with his presence of mind and humanity.

He was the paediatrician in charge of the encephalitis ward when the tragedy struck, and instead of standing around wringing his hands, he immediately sprung into action.


He called up all the suppliers of oxygen cylinders in the district that he could find and tried to arrange for the life-saving gas quickly. However, he was refused by everyone except one, and only on the condition that the payment for the cylinders was made in full before delivery. He did not hesitate for a minute but took out his ATM card and asked one of his staff members to get the cash from his bank account at the earliest.

While he waited for these cylinders to arrive, he saw that the situation in the ward was deteriorating. So he made some more calls and found a friend who owned a private hospital and had three big oxygen cylinders he could spare. Dr. Kafeel rushed to his car and drove down to this hospital to haul these cylinders to BRD. Before leaving, he trained the hospital staff to administer artificial respiration to patients using Ambu bags.

Meanwhile, the agency that had agreed to provide the cylinders backed out, and Dr Kafeel was left with the task of single-handedly trying to procure oxygen for all the children in the ward. He made frantic calls to many other nursing homes and suppliers, and finally found one supplier who kept his promise to deliver. Dr Kafeel personally managed to bring in 12 more oxygen cylinders from other nursing homes by making four more trips in his car, and saved many lives which would have added to the death toll if not for him.


In spite of all his efforts, Dr Kafeel had to witness the tragic death of more than 60 children in front of his eyes. “What’s the use of all the money and our education when we can’t save lives. Money has no meaning if we cannot save a life. I saw so many kids die in front of me and I couldn’t do anything to save them,” he told News18.com

Mystery of how first animals appeared on Earth ‘solved’

dedicated bY: Kavignar Thanigai.



  • Rise of algae triggered one of the most profound ecological revolutions in Earth’s history, without which humans would not exist, the researcher said.
  • It was the transition from oceans being dominated by bacteria to a world inhabited by more complex life, he added.

(Representative image)(Representative image)

MELBOURNE: Scientists have solved the mystery of how the first animals appeared on Earth, a pivotal moment for the planet without which humans would not exist.

Researchers led by The Australian National University (ANU) analysed ancient sedimentary rocks from central Australia, finding that the evolution of animals began with the rise of algae 650 million years ago.

“We crushed these rocks to powder and extracted molecules of ancient organisms from them,” said Jochen Brocks, associate professor at ANU.

“These molecules tell us that it really became interesting 650 million years ago. It was a revolution of ecosystems, it was the rise of algae,” said Brocks, who led the research published in the journal Nature.

Brocks said the rise of algae triggered one of the most profound ecological revolutions in Earth’s history, without which humans and other animals would not exist.

Read this story in Gujarati

“Before all of this happened, there was a dramatic event 50 million years earlier called Snowball Earth,” he said.

“The Earth was frozen over for 50 million years. Huge glaciers ground entire mountain ranges to powder that released nutrients, and when the snow melted during an extreme global heating event rivers washed torrents of nutrients into the ocean,” Brocks said.

Brocks said the extremely high levels of nutrients in the ocean, and cooling of global temperatures to more hospitable levels, created the perfect conditions for the rapid spread of algae.

It was the transition from oceans being dominated by bacteria to a world inhabited by more complex life, he said.

“These large and nutritious organisms at the base of the food web provided the burst of energy required for the evolution of complex ecosystems, where increasingly large and complex animals, including humans, could thrive on Earth,” Brocks said.

Co-lead researcher Amber Jarrett discovered ancient sedimentary rocks from central Australia that related directly to the period just after the melting of Snowball Earth.

“In these rocks we discovered striking signals of molecular fossils,” said Jarrett, a PhD graduate at ANU Research School of Earth Sciences.


This is all wrong. Mulla created human beings who became animals. Many animals still look like human beings. You can see them not only in pakistan and afghanistan, but in India also. Many are in congress.gksurya_99

“We immediately knew that we had made a ground-breaking discovery that snowball Earth was directly involved in the evolution of large and complex life,” said Jarrett.

human leaps: Kavignar Thanigai.

Scientists To Chase Solar Eclipse Using NASA Jets

The total solar eclipse provides a rare opportunity for scientists to study the Sun, particularly its atmosphere.

Scientists To Chase Solar Eclipse Using NASA Jets
WASHINGTON:  In a first, scientists are planning to chase the shadow of the Moon using NASA’s research jets during the upcoming total solar eclipse in the US, in order to capture the clearest ever images of the Sun’s outer atmosphere.

Amir Caspi of the Southwest Research Institute in the US and his team will use two of NASA’s WB-57F research jets to follow the darkness across the US on August 21.

Taking observations from twin telescopes mounted on the noses of the planes, Caspi will capture the clearest images of the Sun’s corona to date and the first-ever thermal images of Mercury, revealing how temperature varies across the planet’s surface.

nasa wb 57f aircraft

Amir Caspi and his team will use NASA’s WB-57F jets to follow the darkness across the US on August 21.

“These could well turn out to be the best ever observations of high frequency phenomena in the corona,” said Dan Seaton, researcher at University of Colorado in the US.

The total solar eclipse provides a rare opportunity for scientists to study the Sun, particularly its atmosphere.

As the Moon completely covers the Sun and perfectly blocks its light during an eclipse, the typically faint corona is easily seen against the dark sky.

During the upcoming total solar eclipse, scientists will observe the solar corona using stabilised telescopes aboard the WB-57F research aircraft.

This vantage point provides distinct advantages over ground-based observations, researchers said.

The corona is heated to millions of degrees, yet the lower atmospheric layers like the photosphere – the visible surface of the Sun – are only heated to a few thousand degrees. Scientists are not sure how this inversion happens.

One theory proposes micro explosions, termed nanoflares – too small and frequent to detect individually, but with a large collective effect – might release heat into the corona.

No one has yet directly seen nanoflares, but the high- resolution and high-speed images to be taken from the WB-57F jets might reveal their effects on the corona.

The high-definition pictures, captured 30 times per second, will be analysed for wave motion in the corona to see if waves move towards or away from the surface of the Sun, and with what strengths and sizes.

The two planes, launching from Ellington Field near NASA’s Johnson Space Center in Houston will observe the total eclipse for about three and a half minutes each.

By flying high in the stratosphere, observations taken with onboard telescopes will avoid looking through the majority of Earth’s atmosphere, greatly improving image quality.

At the planes’ cruising altitude of 50,000 feet, the sky is 20-30 times darker than as seen from the ground, and there is much less atmospheric turbulence, allowing fine structures and motions in the Sun’s corona to be visible.

Observations of Mercury will also be taken a half-hour before and after totality, when the sky is still relatively dark.

These images, taken in the infrared, will be the first attempt to map the variation of temperature across the surface of the planet.


This Incredible Plane Could Fly from the U.S. to England in Only 20 Minutes



Brooke Nelson : Reporter

dedicated by: kavignar Thanigai



Science has finally found a cure for your wanderlust woes. Thanks to the new Antipode airplane, passengers could one day fly from London to New York in just 20 minutes.

Let’s repeat that: Twenty. Minutes. Have we just gotten one step closer to teleportation?

Canadian designer Charles Bombardier thinks so! Although it would use a normal runway, his plane would travel at supersonic speeds after take off, METRO reports. Using what he calls ‘low penetration mode,’ the aircraft would rapidly channel air across a nozzle on its nose, reaching a top speed of 18,264 miles per hour. By the way, that’s 24 times the speed of sound. No big deal.

‘The idea of going from New York to London in, say 20 minutes – that’s what I think really grabbed people,’ Bombardier told BBC. ‘It’s always something that people would like – a transportation system that could take you from one place on the planet to the other side.’

Plus, with its ability to reach a peak height of 40,000 feet, this plane is out of this world (literally!) Here’s the trade-off, though: The aircraft, which is just a concept for now, would only be able to sit 10 people. So if this ever reaches the mainstream market, getting tickets will be pricey—not to mention competitive.

But when push comes to shove, we’ll be holding out hope to one day cross the Atlantic in roughly the same amount of time it takes to commute to work. In the meantime, you can still book a cheap flight to Hawaii; just make sure to follow these air travel tips before your next flight.

Also watch: The man who takes a plane to work (Provided by BBC)

The man who takes a plane to work

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In pics: Very best seat on an airplane for every type of need (Provided by Reader’s Digest)





Mars close up

Colonizing Mars has long captivated the human imagination, and NASA is no exception.

The American space agency has made landing humans on Mars a high priority of its exploration programs and under bipartisan 2010 legislation pledged to develop the capabilities to send humans to the planet by the 2030s.

But there remains a major problem standing between mankind and the red planet: money.

The head of NASA’s program on human exploration of space, William Gerstenmaier, said on Wednesday that with its current budget the agency simply cannot afford the cost of propelling a manned spacecraft to Mars.

Through this horizon, through the 2030s, I can’t put a date on humans on Mars,” said Gerstenmaier on Wednesday, in response to a question at a propulsion meeting of the American Institute for Aeronautics and Astronautics in Georgia.

Read more: Skintight space suits are the order of the day for astronauts who hope to survive life on Mars 

“At the budget levels we’ve described—it’s roughly a 2 percent increase—we don’t have the surface systems available for Mars. That entry, descent and landing is a huge challenge for us for Mars.”

NASA has landed several unmanned exploratory vehicles on Mars in the past. The Curiosity rover, which landed on Marsh in August 2012 and will soon be celebrating its five-year anniversary exploring the planet, cost around $2.5 billion.

Curiosity Rover

Gerstenmaier said that a manned mission to Mars would weigh around twenty times what previous rovers have weighed. “So it’s a twenty-fold increase in capability,” he said, likely meaning a much higher cost.

Lawmakers allocated NASA a budget of $19.5 billion for the 2017 fiscal year, which equates to less than half a percent of the overall federal budget.

The agency has not produced a specific figure of the cost of a manned mission to Mars, and estimates vary depending on sources. In 2012, the head of NASA’s Jet Propulsion Laboratory, Brent Sherwood, estimated that the project could cost up to $100 billion over the course of 30 or 40 years. More recently, Pascal Lee, the director of the Mars Institute—a nonprofit research group funded partially by NASA and based at a NASA research center in Silicon Valley—said in May that a human mission to Mars could cost up to $1 trillion over 25 years.

Private organizations that are working on their own missions to Mars have estimated lower costs. Mars One, a Dutch-Swiss organization aiming to establish a permanent settlement on Mars, aims to bring four people to Mars at a cost of $6 billion. SpaceX founder Elon Musk, who has said he wants to send humans to Mars in the early 2020s, put the cost at $10 billion per person in 2016.

Landing on Mars poses numerous threats to a manned mission. The spacecraft must angle its entry into the Martian atmosphere correctly: If it is too steep, the craft may burn up, and if too shallow the craft may miss the planet altogether. Astronauts must use reverse thrusters and parachutes to slow the spacecraft down so that it is not destroyed upon impact with the surface. The craft must also locate a safe landing surface on the rugged terrain of Mars, parts of which are peppered with gigantic craters.

And while research has shown that liquid water once flowed on Mars, a recent study found that the soil is toxic to bacteria —one of the simplest forms of living organisms—and thus may also pose problems for sustaining human life.

Scientists solve centuries-old mystery of “bright nights”

thanks PTI

Normally, people do not notice airglow, but on bright nights it can become visible to the naked eye, producing the unexplained glow detailed in historical observations. (representational image)

Scientists have solved a centuries-old mystery of “bright nights” – an unusual glow that appears in the sky after dark and lets observers see distant mountains, read a newspaper or check their watch.

Researchers suggest that when waves in the upper atmosphere converge over specific locations on Earth, it amplifies naturally occurring airglow, a faint light in the night sky that often appears green due to the activities of atoms of oxygen in the high atmosphere.

Normally, people do not notice airglow, but on bright nights it can become visible to the naked eye, producing the unexplained glow detailed in historical observations.

Historical accounts of bright nights go back centuries. European newspapers and the scientific literature also carried observations of these events in 1783, 1908 and 1916.

“Bright nights do exist, and they’re part of the variability of airglow that can be observed with satellite instruments,” said Gordon Shepherd, an aeronomer at York University in Toronto in Canada.

“The historical record is so coherent, going back over centuries, the descriptions are very similar,” said Shepherd, lead author of the study published in the journal Geophysical Research Letters.

Modern observations of bright nights from Earth are practically nonexistent light pollution. Even devoted airglow researchers have never seen a true bright night.

However, even before the advent of artificial lighting, bright nights were rare and highly localised.

Researchers could see bright night events reflected in airglow data from the Wind Imaging Interferometer (WINDII), an instrument once carried by NASA’s Upper Atmosphere Research Satellite (1991-2005).

They searched for mechanisms that would cause airglow to increase to visible levels at specific locations.

Airglow comes from emissions of different colors of light from chemical reactions in the upper reaches of the atmosphere. The green portion of airglow occurs when light from the sun splits apart molecular oxygen into individual oxygen atoms.

When the atoms recombine, they give off the excess energy as photons in the green part of the visible light spectrum, giving the sky a greenish tinge.

To find factors that would cause peaks in airglow and create bright nights, researchers searched two years of WINDII data for unusual airglow profiles.

They identified 11 events where WINDII detected a spike in airglow levels that would be visible to the human eye, two of which they describe in detail in the study.

Finally, the researchers matched up the events with the ups and downs of zonal waves, large waves in the upper atmosphere that circle the globe and are impacted by weather.


dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.


fatman…..India in satellite launching…Kavignar Thanigai.

Isro’s most powerful rocket GSLV Mk III places GSAT-19 communication satellite in orbit

SRIHARIKOTA: Indian Space Research Organisation on Monday successfully launched its most powerful rocket, GSLV Mk III nicknamed ‘Fatboy’+ , by firing a high thrust indigenous cryogenic engine in the first developmental flight and placed the country’s heaviest satellite in orbit.

With the launch, Isro has demonstrated its mastery in developing a cryogenic engine, a technology denied to it years ago. The launch proves the homegrown launch vehicle’s capability of hurling up to four tonne payload into higher orbits.

It has also laid a strong foundation for its ambitious future projects, including Chandraayan-II and a manned mission, besides venturing into the global heavy payload market.

GSLV Mk III-D1 carrying communication satellite GSAT-19+ lifted off from the second launch pad at Satish Dhawan Space Centre in Sriharikota at 5.28pm. Around 16 minutes after takeoff, the vehicle placed the satellite in the geosynchronous transfer orbit.
Read this story in Gujarati

Congratulating the scientists and others who worked for the successful mission, Isro chairman A S Kiran Kumar said: “It is a historic day. The entire team has worked since 2002. The vehicle carried the next generation satellite. We are looking forward to getting the satellite operational.”

Vikram Sarabhai Space Centre director Dr K Sivan said, “It is the commencement of two complex technologies – a vehicle that can carry twice the payload weight and a high throughput satellite. It is the continued efforts of the team and industry contribution.”

The three-stage vehicle was propelled by an indigenously designed and developed cryogenic engine — CE-20 — in its upper stage (C25 stage) before it ejected the satellite into its orbit. GSAT-19’s propulsion system will be later used for the satellite to reach its geostationary orbital home.

The launch is also the first flight for CE-20 engine+ , which was under development since 2002. The engine, which runs on a less complex technology compared to its Russian design predecessors, has undergone more than 200 tests in the last few years.

Satish Dhawan Space Centre director P Kunhikrishnan said, “Isro has made it a habit to execute complex jobs in the most professional way. This has culminated in yet another successful event in Sriharikota.”

Kunhikrishnan said integration for the next launch PSLV C38 is going on in the first launch pad simultaneously. “It is planned in the next half of the month. The next GSLV Mk III will be integrated in the new vehicle assembly coming up which will be three times bigger,” he said.

The GSAT-19 carried transponders and a geostationary radiation spectrometer. The instrument will monitor and study the nature of charged particles and the influence of space radiation on satellites and their electronic components.

In December 2014, a miniature version of GSLV Mk III+ carried a 3,775kg experimental crew module. The vehicle did not have the cryogenic engine as it was only to demonstrate the design.

It took five years for Isro to taste its first success with GSLV Mk II after the engine failed 800 milliseconds into ignition in its first flight on April 15, 2010. The vehicle was carrying GSAT-4 satellite.

  • INDIAGSLV Mk III will help reduce dependence on foreign launchers
  • INDIATerrorists intended a prolonged siege in J&K: Rajnath

The first successful flight of indigenously made cryogenic stage powered GSLV Mk II was on January 5, 2014 when it carried GSAT-14. Since then, Mark II has seen four successful flights including the launch of South Asia Satellite on May 5 this year.

Top Comment

Seems like launching satellites and rockets have become a child’s play for ISRO.sudhanshu pandey

PSLV C38 launch

Isro chairman Kiran Kumar said PSLV C38 would be launched on June 23.

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Up Voted
Down Voted
sudhanshu pandey


Seems like launching satellites and rockets have become a child’s play for ISRO.

252 1 ReplyFlag
Ravi Rajamannar


There is a great demand in China and Pakistan for BURNOL to cool their burning a$ses !!

4 0 ReplyFlag


it is honest dedication and devotion towards country which works.. a prayer is always heard when there is honesty in it..
Jai hind..

40 0 ReplyFlag



2 0 ReplyFlag
Show all responses
ramakrishnareddy reddy


Pls give proof to kejriwal first

180 8 ReplyFlag
ABra Ka Dabra


Time to copy ISRO work culture in every organization’s, especially govt ones..

132 0 ReplyFlag

Half of India’s under 18 population lives in poverty: Study

IANS | Jun 5, 2017, 05.23 PM IST

According to a study, nearly two out of every five children - a total of 689 million children - are classed as multi-dimensionally poor.According to a study, nearly two out of every five children – a total of 689 million children – are classed as… Read More
LONDON: At least half of India’s under 18 population lives in acute poverty, reveals a “deeply disturbing” study from Oxford University.

Across the 103 low and middle income countries surveyed, children were found to constitute 34 per cent of the total population, but 48 per cent of the poor, based on a measure that assesses a range of deprivations in health, education and living standards.

The international definition of a child, used in the study, was anyone less than 18 years of age.

“These new results are deeply disturbing as they show that children are disproportionately poor when the different dimensions of poverty are measured,” said Sabina Alkire, Director of Oxford Poverty & Human Development Initiative (OPHI) at the University of Oxford.

The research examined the latest figures for the Global Multidimensional Poverty Index (MPI) by age group to analyse the particular situation of 1.8 billion children who live in 103 countries.

MPI complements traditional income-based poverty measures by capturing the severe deprivations that each person faces at the same time with respect to education, health and living standards.

The MPI assesses poverty at the individual level. If someone is deprived in a third or more of ten (weighted) indicators – nutrition, child mortality, years of schooling, school attendance, cooking fuel, improved sanitation, safe drinking water, electricity, flooring, assets – the global index identifies them as “MPI poor”.

The extent – or intensity – of their poverty is measured by the number of deprivations they are experiencing.

According to the OPHI, nearly two out of every five children – a total of 689 million children – are classed as multi-dimensionally poor.

Half of South Asia’s children and two thirds of Sub-Saharan children are multi-dimensionally poor, according to the study.

  • INDIAGSLV Mk III will help reduce dependence on foreign launchers
  • INDIATerrorists intended a prolonged siege in J&K: Rajnath

In 36 countries, including India, at least half of all children are MPI poor.

The condition of children is worse in Ethiopia, Niger and South Sudan where over 90 per cent of all children are MPI poor, according to the study which highlights the challenges that the UN’s new Sustainable Development Goals for the eradication of child poverty face.

“This is a wake-up call to the international community which has adopted the global Sustainable Development Goals and takes seriously Goal 1, the eradication of poverty in all its forms and dimensions,” Alkire said in a news release.

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Sharad Kumar Jain assumes charge as National Water Development Agency director general

Yogesh Kabirdoss| TNN | Jun 5, 2017, 04.58 PM IST

CHENNAI: Sharad Kumar Jain has assumed the additional charge of director general, National Water Development Agency (NWDA) under Ministry of Water Resources, River Development and Ganga Rejuvenation.

  • INDIAGSLV Mk III will help reduce dependence on foreign launchers
  • INDIATerrorists intended a prolonged siege in J&K: Rajnath

According to an official statement, Jain is presently working with National Institute of Hydrology, Roorkee. Jain succeeds S Masood Husain who has moved over as Member (WP&P), Central Water Commission.

NWDA was set up in 1982 as an autonomous society under the Societies Registration Act, 1860, to carry out water balance and other studies on scientific and realistic basis for optimum utilisation of water resources of the peninsular rivers system for preparation of feasibility reports and thus to give concrete shape to Peninsular Rivers Development Component of National Perspective.

In 1990, NWDA was also entrusted with the task of Himalayan Rivers Development Component of National Perspectives. Recently, the functions of NWDA have been further modified and the work of preparation of detailed Project Reports of various link proposals and pre-feasibility reports and feasibility reports of intra-state links as proposed by the states have been included in the functions of NWDA.

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India ready to resolve issues with Pakistan, but talks and terror can’t go together: Sushma Swaraj

TIMESOFINDIA.COM | Jun 5, 2017, 04.22 PM IST


  • India made it clear that the Kashmir issue can be resolved only bilaterally and said “Pakistan can’t take Kashmir issue to the International Court of Justice
  • Sushma Swaraj said India wants countries which back its bid for NSG membership to talk to China for Beijing’s support

Sushma Swaraj. (AP photo)Sushma Swaraj. (AP photo)

NEW DELHI: India on Monday said it wants to resolve all issues with Pakistanbilaterally, but asserted that talks and terror cannot go together.

External affairs minister Sushma Swaraj also made it clear that the Kashmir issue can be resolved only bilaterally and said “Pakistan can’t take Kashmir issue to the International Court of Justice

She denied any flip-flop in India’s policy on Pakistan.

Sushma and her two junior ministers were speaking about the achievements of external affairs ministry on the completion of three years of the Modi government+ .

On the issue of Chinese choppers over Chamoli district+ , Sushma Swaraj said India will raise airspace violation issue with Beijing.

She said relationship between India and the US was progressing under Donald Trump as it did during Obama’s presidency.

NSG membership

Sushma Swaraj said India wants countries which back its bid for NSG membership+ to talk to China for Beijing’s support. China has been opposing India’s bid for NSG membership.

  • INDIAGSLV Mk III will help reduce dependence on foreign launchers
  • INDIATerrorists intended a prolonged siege in J&K: Rajnath

OBOR project

Justifying India’s opposition to the OBOR project, Sushma Swaraj said the project could not be supported as it involves India’s sovereignty+ .

Paris agreement

Reiterating the country’s commitment to the Paris climate deal, the external affairs minister said that India did not sign the agreement under duress or for monetary benefits.

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India to Pakistan: Will deal sternly with infiltration, ceasefire violations

PTI | Jun 5, 2017, 03.51 PM IST


  • India and Pakistan DGMOs held a telephonic conversation today.
  • The two army commanders discussed the situation along the Line of Control.
  • India said the request for the conversation was made by the Pakistan DGMO.

NEW DELHI: Indian Army‘s Director General of Military Operations (DGMO) Lt Gen A K Bhatt on Monday told his Pakistani counterpart that any attempt by the Pakistan military to resort to unprovoked firings along the LoC in Jammu and Kashmir and abet infiltrators would be met with “appropriate retaliatory actions”.

In their telephonic conversation, the two army commanders discussed the situation along the Line of Control which has witnessed increasing incidents of ceasefire violations by Pakistan in the last couple of months.

“DGMO Indian Army conveyed his commitment of ensuring peace and tranquility which is contingent on Pak Army’s intentions and actions.

“If Pakistan Army continues to abet infiltrations and cause trans-LC firings, Indian Army will take appropriate retaliatory actions,” the Army said in a statement, sharing details of the conversation between Bhatt and his Pakistani counterpart, Maj Gen Sahir Shamshad Mirza.

  • INDIAGSLV Mk III will help reduce dependence on foreign launchers
  • INDIATerrorists intended a prolonged siege in J&K: Rajnath

Army said Lt Gen Bhatt highlighted cases of escalations of tension by the Pakistan Army during the conversation.

“On the issue raised by DGMO Pak Army regarding civilian killings, DGMO Indian Army conveyed that the Indian Army is a professional Army and will not harm civilians in any manner,” the Indian Army said.

It said the request for the conversation was made by the Pakistan DGMO.

Stay updated on the go with Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.


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STONE IN A WATER : Kavignar Thanigai.


At last Mohan got job in that American company,even though his pay is very less he is ready to work with honest if it is not harm to his prestige.  Daily he used to travel one and half hour journey by bus. while going and coming bus have so much of crowd.

Few times he watched her, She also came and stood nearer to him, some times  very nearer to his seat, so,both were different in that whole bus, They want to know each other. But there is no initial move to one other.

Image result for BEAUtiful lady

One fine day He sat in the middle seat . Other 2 passengers left and got down, She came to near and sat with him.After few minutes she want take rest on his shoulder with out any disturbances , She take whole hearted deep rest,some minutes went on, He started to speak with her,some times I saw you, you are getting down that stop,where you are working? and what is you, She replied wantedly.

10 or 15 minutes over, nearest stage came ,she corrected her self and sat properly as a stranger and ready to got down. she got don and went away.

After some months went on, He felt why not we asked her name and contact number,she started think about her and cursed himself about his foolishness to not utilise the chance properly and usefully.


But After that day His way of journey and mode of journey changed to train due to economy and family responsibility. So; there is no chance at all to cross one with other. many months went on with innerself urges to see each other.

One fine festival brought her again to his front. One important stage with very rush and crowd she got into the bus with the festival luggage bag, He sat in front seat, so; immediately , he taken her bag and kept on his lap, she was very much amused and stood nearby to him. But after only He watched her husband came back of her. Due to crowd He went inside. But she did’nt want to get away from Mohan, intentionally want to have body touch with him, even with the presence of his husband.

What a Love is this? is it Lust, ? what kind of relationship she had with him, with out basic things she showed so much of love to him, even she is ready to offer her to him, but the situations and circumstances not co operate to each other, they didn’t know each other home or residence or about their families, But both are have family spouse and children also.

What is a Love it is, to cross all limits of day to day life, family, children and others, is it Lust? But her husband realised with in few minutes about her intention and asked to stand away from him. Then their stop came, they taken their festival luggage bag and went away to their place.

Mohan thought how I have to communicate to her about to get her contact,or to keep his card put into her bag? No he is not a small boy, So, he did not take any advance activity of getting her contact or keep his card in her bag.

So; Season changed, Summer came  and winter also went, No changes…stone in a water.with memories only they want to meet again each other, nature only help and guide to them make their meeting again…He thinks about her beautiful face and wonderful activity and attachment with him of about their few minutes, Rainbow when will show?What will give?

How and what is the speciality attracts her towards Mohan, even Mohan thinks about it many times…She is very majestic look and beautiful culture, and there is no words exactly with him to describe her fully, Any how the moments and memories are very fragrant and attractive and creates very beautiful thoughts and inspiration to want of that again and again, But  the same will happen again in his life?

Image result for stone in a time water

No guarantee and no warranty that  is life.


18-year-old from Tamil Nadu designs world’s lightest satellite

thanks: Times of India

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.


  1. The satellite was selected through a competition called ‘Cubes in Space’, jointly organised by NASA and ‘I Doodle Learning’
  2. This will be the first time an Indian student’s experiment – a 64 gm satellite – will be flown by NASA
MUMBAI: Eighteen-year-old Rifath Sharook, belonging to a comparatively unknown town of Pallapatti in Tamil Nadu, is all set to break a global space record by launching the lightest satellite in the world, weighing a mere 64 grams.

The satellite, called KalamSat, will be launched by a NASA sounding rocket on June 21 from Wallops Island, a NASA facility. This will be the first time an Indian student’s experiment will be flown by NASA.

Top Comment

What can we say. This is something simply extraordinary. The Prime Minister of India should take notice of this boy’s intellectual ability and provide him all necessary support to continue his appeti… Read MoreZiaullah Thiruvallur

Speaking to TOI from Pallapatti, Rifath said it will be a sub-orbital flight and post-launch, the mission span will be 240 minutes and the tiny satellite will operate for 12 minutes in a micro-gravity environment of space. “The main role of the satellite will be to demonstrate the performance of 3-D printed carbon fibre,” he explained. He said the satellite was selected through a competition called ‘Cubes in Space’, jointly organised by NASA and a organisation called ‘I Doodle Learning’.

Image result for lightest satellite

The main challenge was to design an experiment to be flown to space which will fit into a four-metre cube weighing exactly 64 grams. “We did a lot of research on different cube satellites all over the world and found ours was the lightest,” he said. Rifath said the satellite is made mainly of reinforced carbon fibre polymer. “We obtained some of the components from abroad and some are indigenous,” he said.


Jiddu Krishnamurti…some thing different…Kavignar Thanigai.

Jiddu Krishnamurti texts Jiddu Krishnamurti quotes and talks, 3000 texts in many languages. Jiddu Krishnamurti texts

Think on These Things

Part 1


HAVE YOU EVER considered why we are disciplined, or why we discipline ourselves? Political parties all over the world insist that the party discipline be followed. Your parents, your teachers, the society around you – they all tell you that you must be disciplined, controlled. Why? And is there really any necessity for discipline at all? I know we are accustomed to think that discipline is necessary – the discipline imposed either by society, or by a religious teacher, or by a particular moral code, or by our own experience. The ambitious man who wants to achieve, who wants to make a lot of money, who wants to be a great politician – his very ambition becomes the means of his own discipline. So everyone around you says that discipline is necessary: you must go to bed and get up at a certain hour, you must study, pass examinations, obey your father and mother, and so on.

Now, why should you be disciplined at all? What does discipline mean? It means adjusting yourself to something, does it not? To adjust your thinking to what other people say, to resist some forms of desire and accept others, to comply with this practice and not with that, to conform, to suppress, to follow, not only on the surface of the mind, but also deep down – all this is implied in discipline. And for centuries, age after age, we have been told by teachers, gurus, priests, politicians, kings, lawyers, by the society in which we live, that there must be discipline.

So, I am asking myself – and I hope you too are asking yourself – whether discipline is necessary at all, and whether there is not an entirely different approach to this problem? I think there is a different approach, and this is the real issue which is confronting not only the schools but the whole world. You see, it is generally accepted that, in order to be efficient, you must be disciplined, either by a moral code, a political creed, or by being trained to work like a machine in a factory; but this very process of discipline is making the mind dull through conformity.

Now, does discipline set you free, or does it make you conform to an ideological pattern, whether it be the utopian pattern of communism, or some kind of moral or religious pattern? Can discipline ever set you free? Having bound you, made you a prisoner, as all forms of discipline do, can it then let you go? How can it? Or is there a different approach altogether – which is to awaken a really deep insight into the whole problem of discipline? That is, can you, the individual, have only one desire and not two or many conflicting desires? Do you understand what I mean? The moment you have two, three, or ten desires, you have the problem of discipline, have you not? You want to be rich, to have cars, houses, and at the same time you want to renounce these things because you think that to possess little or nothing is moral, ethical, religious. And is it possible to be educated in the right way so that one’s whole being is integrated, without contradiction, and therefore without the need of discipline? To be integrated implies a sense of freedom, and when this integration is taking place there is surely no need for discipline. Integration means being one thing totally on all levels at the same time.

You see, if we could have right education from the very tenderest age, it would bring about a state in which there is no contradiction at all, either within or without; and then there would be no need for discipline or compulsion because you would be doing something completely, freely, with your whole being. Discipline arises only when there is a contradiction. The politicians, the governments, the organized religions want you to have only one way of thinking, because if they can make you a complete communist, a complete Catholic, or whatever it is, then you are not a problem, you simply believe and work like a machine; then there is no contradiction because you just follow. But all following is destructive because it is mechanical, it is mere conformity in which there is no creative release.

Now, can we bring about, from the tenderest age, a sense of complete security, a feeling of being at home, so that in you there is no struggle to be this and not to be that? Because the moment there is an inward struggle there is conflict, and to overcome that conflict there must be discipline. Whereas, if you are rightly educated, then everything that you do is an integrated action; there is no contradiction and hence no compulsive action. As long as there is no integration there must be discipline, but discipline is destructive because it does not lead to freedom.

To be integrated does not demand any form of discipline. That is, if I am doing what is good, what is intrinsically true, what is really beautiful, doing it with my whole being, then there is no contradiction in me and I am not merely conforming to something. If what I am doing is totally good, right in itself – not right according to some Hindu tradition or communist theory, but timelessly right under all circumstances – then I am an integrated human being and have no need for discipline. And is it not the function of a school to bring about in you this sense of integrated confidence so that what you are doing is not merely what you wish to do, but that which is fundamentally right and good, everlastingly true? you love there is no need for discipline, is there? Love brings its own creative understanding, therefore there is no resistance, no conflict; but to love with such complete integration is possible only when you feel deeply secure, completely at home, especially while you are young. This means, really, that the educator and the student must have abounding confidence in each other, otherwise we shall create a society which will be as ugly and destructive as the present one. If we can understand the significance of completely integrated action in which there is no contradiction, and therefore no need for discipline, then I think we shall bring about a totally different kind of culture, a new civilization. But if we merely resist, suppress, then what is suppressed will inevitably rebound in other directions and set going various mischievous activities and destructive events.

So it is very important to understand this whole question of discipline. To me, discipline is something altogether ugly; it is not creative, it is destructive. But merely to stop there, with a statement of that kind, may seem to imply that you can do whatever you like. On the contrary, a man who loves does not do whatever he likes. It is love alone that leads to right action. What brings order in the world is to love and let love do what it will.

Questioner: Why do we hate the poor?

Krishnamurti: Do you really hate the poor? I am not condemning you; I am just asking, do you really hate the poor? And if you do, why? Is it because you also may be poor one day, and imagining your own plight then, you reject it? Or is it that you dislike the sordid, dirty, unkempt existence of the poor? Disliking untidiness, disorder, squalor, filth, you say, “I don’t want to have anything to do with the poor.” Is that it? But who has created poverty, squalor and disorder in the world? You, your parents, your government – our whole society has created them; because, you see, we have no love in our hearts. We love neither our children nor our neighbours, neither the living nor the dead. We have no love for anything at all. The politicians are not going to eradicate all this misery and ugliness in the world, any more than the religions and the reformers will, because they are only concerned with a little patchwork here and there; but if there were love, then all these ugly things would disappear tomorrow.

Do you love anything? Do you know what it is to love? You know, when you love something completely, with your whole being, that love is not sentimental, it is not duty, it is not divided as physical or divine. Do you love anyone or anything with your whole being – your parents, a friend, your dog, a tree? Do you? I am afraid you don’t. That is why you have vast spaces in your being in which there is ugliness, hate, envy. You see, the man who loves has no room for anything else. We should really spend our time discussing all this and finding out how to remove the things that are so cluttering our minds that we cannot love; for it is only when we love that we can be free and happy. It is only people who are loving, vital, happy, that can create a new world – not the politicians, not the reformers or the few ideological saints. Questioner: You talk about truth goodness and integration, which implies that on the other side there is untruth, evil and disintegration. So how can one be true, good and integrated without discipline?

Krishnamurti: In other words, being envious, how can one be free of envy without discipline? I think it is very important to understand the question itself; because the answer is in the question, it is not apart from the question.

Do you know what envy means? You are nice looking, you are finely dressed, or wear a beautiful turban or sari, and I also want to dress like that; but I cannot, so I am envious. I am envious because I want what you have; I want to be different from what I am.

I am envious because I want to be as beautiful as you are; I want to have the fine clothes, the elegant house, the high position that you have. Being dissatisfied with what I am, I want to be like you; but, if I understood my dissatisfaction and its cause, then I would not want to be like you or long for the things that you have. In other words, if once I begin to understand what I am, then I shall never compare myself with another or be envious of anyone. Envy arises because I want to change myself and become like somebody else. But if I say, “Whatever I am, that I want to understand”, then envy is gone; then there is no need of discipline, and out of the understanding of what I am comes integration.

Our education, our environment, our whole culture insists that we must become something. Our philosophies, our religions and sacred books all say the same thing. But now I see that the very process of becoming something implies envy, which means that I am not satisfied with being what I am; and I want to understand what I am, I want to find out why I am always comparing myself with another, trying to become something; and in understanding what I am there is no need for discipline. In the process of that understanding, integration comes into being. The contradiction in me yields to the understanding of myself, and this in turn brings an action which is integral, whole. Questioner: What is power?

Krishnamurti: There is mechanical power, the power produced by the internal combustion engine, by steam, or by electricity. There is the power that dwells in a tree, that causes the sap to flow, that creates the leaf. There is the power to think very clearly, the power to love, the power to hate, the power of a dictator, the power to exploit people in the name of God, in the name of the Masters, in the name of a country. These are all forms of power.

Now, power as electricity or light, atomic power, and so on – all such forms of power are good in themselves, are they not? But the power of the mind that uses them for the purposes of aggression and tyranny, to gain something for itself – such power is evil under all circumstances. The head of any society, church or religious group who has power over other people is an evil person, because he is controlling, shaping, guiding others without knowing where he himself is going. This is true not only of the big organizations, but of the little societies all over the world. The moment a person is clear, unconfused, he ceases to be a leader and therefore he has no power.

So it is very important to understand why the human mind demands to have power over others. The parents have power over their children, the wife over the husband, or the husband over the wife. Beginning in the small family, the evil extends until it becomes the tyranny of governments, of political leaders and religious interpreters. And can one live without this hunger for power, without wanting to influence or exploit people, without wanting power for oneself, or for a group or a nation, or for a Master or a saint? All such forms of power are destructive, they bring misery to man. Whereas, to be really kind, to be considerate, to love – this is a strange thing, it has its own timeless effect. Love is its own eternity, and where there is love there is no evil power.

Questioner: Why do we seek fame?

Krishnamurti: Have you ever thought about it? We want to be famous as a writer, as a poet, as a painter, as a politician, as a singer, or what you will. Why? Because we really don’t love what we are doing. If you loved to sing, or to paint, or to write poems – if you really loved it – you would not be concerned with whether you are famous or not. To want to be famous is tawdry, trivial, stupid, it has no meaning; but, because we don’t love what we are doing, we want to enrich ourselves with fame. Our present education is rotten because it teaches us to love success and not what we are doing. The result has become more important than the action.

You know, it is good to hide your brilliance under a bushel, to be anonymous, to love what you are doing and not to show off. It is good to be kind without a name. That does not make you famous, it does not cause your photograph to appear in the newspapers. Politicians do not come to your door. You are just a creative human being living anonymously, and in that there is richness and great beauty.

Think on These Things

Part 1


Texts and talks of Jiddu Krishnamurti. Krishnamurti quotes. Books about
J Krishnamurti. Philosophy.

Art of War

ancient Chinese treatise by Sun Tzu

free to read online

48 Laws of Power

a different universe by Robert Greene?

free summary online

ueli STECK – CLIMBING MACHINE NO MORE…..Kavignar Thanigai.

Swiss climber Ueli Steck pictured in Sigoyer, in the Hautes-Alpes department of south-eastern France, on August 13, 2015


The Swiss climber Ueli Steck has been killed preparing to climb Mount Everest, Nepal’s tourist office says.

Steck, who was known as the “Swiss Machine”, died in an accident while acclimatising for an attempt on the mountain without oxygen by a new route.

The 40-year-old had won multiple awards and was known for his rapid ascents.

His body has been recovered from the base of Mount Nupste, which shares a common ridge with Everest, after he was spotted by fellow climbers.

“He had an accident on the Nuptse wall and died. It seems he slipped,” Ang Tsering Sherpa, head of the Nepal Mountaineering Association, told news agency AFP.

Steck was preparing to climb Mount Everest using its West Ridge, a route which has been the cause of more deaths than successful ascents, followed by Lhotse, the fourth highest mountain in the world.

It is believed he was alone on Sunday due to his climbing partner contracting severe frostbite.

On Wednesday, Steck wrote on his Facebook page that he had a “quick day from Basecamp up to 7,000m and back” as he believed “active acclimatisation” was the most effective way of getting used to high altitude.

The climber reached Mount Everest’s summit without oxygen in 2012, and in 2015 climbed all 82 Alpine peaks over 4,000m (13,100ft) in 62 days.

Steck had returned to the world’s tallest mountain four years on from an altercation with sherpas which caused him to abandon an attempt to climb Everest and Lhotse.

In a video about his Everest-Lhotse project ahead of his departure for the Himalayas, Steck said he felt super-ready and psyched. “My body is as strong as it was never before,” he added.

Asked about his definition of success for the ambitious plans to traverse Everest and Lhotse via the Hornbein Couloir, Steck said: “If you have an accident or if you’re going to die, that’s definitely not successful, all the other things, it’s a success already.”

Why do I have to attempt Everest and Lhotse? Yet again, the answer is simple: I get to stay longer in the mountains.

“And now I’ll just go, and only worry about the events that lie ahead of me. Day by day, one by one. It is the here and now that counts. What comes next is uncertain in any case.

“Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow.”

Read more on Ueli Steck’s website

Last year Steck and fellow climber David Goettler found the bodies of two American mountaineers in Tibet, 16 years after they were killed by a huge avalanche.

Veteran British mountaineer Sir Chris Bonington paid tribute to Steck, describing him as “one of the great climbers of all time”. He said that Steck’s reputation for speed climbing had not necessarily put him at greater risk.

“What kills most people is the objective dangers, going into an area where there is stone fall or the threat of avalanche,” he told the BBC’s Newshour programme.

“The longer you are exposed to that threat, statistically the more likelihood there is of you being hit by one of these things. Whereas if you are moving very fast you are exposed to that danger for a much shorter time.

“But the people who are climbing at the absolute limit, which he undoubtedly was, the death rate among the very best mountaineers is very high, particularly in the Himalayas.”

British mountaineer Kenton Cool described Steck as “a true inspiration” who “showed us all what was possible in the mountains and beyond”.

The British Mountaineering Council described him as a “legendary mountaineer and all-round great guy”.

A view of Mount Everest (C-top) towering over the Nupse-Lohtse massif (foreground) from the village of Tembuche in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal (file photo)

Ueli Steck set new standards in alpine climbing – setting a string of records for making breathtakingly quick solo ascents of classic routes.

He also played a big part in bringing the sport to a new audience through the epic films made of his exploits.

He was nicknamed the “Swiss Machine” for his ruthlessly methodical approach and his ability to keep going even after pushing himself to the limits of human endurance.

In 2015 he climbed one of the world’s most famous walls, the North Face of the Eiger, in two hours 47 minutes – a time that would have been unthinkable to the early pioneers of the sport, who took days to complete it. In 2015, he improved on that feat with a time of two hours 22 minutes and 50 seconds.

The body of Swiss climber Ueli Steck arrives at the helipad of Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, 30 April 2017

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai

thanks: BBC News Asia

Kalpit Veerval…..Kavignar Thanigai.

UDAIPUR: Udaipur boy Kalpit Veerval has topped the prestigious JEE Main 2017.
Kalpit Veerval.

Kalpit is the first student to score a perfect 100%, or 360 marks, in the JEE Main competition.

A student of the MDS Senior Secondary School in Udaipur, Kalpit did not miss a single class throughout the year.

“Everyone suggested that I should go to Kota or Hyderabad for coaching, but I didn’t want to take studies as a burden. I wanted to enjoy what I learned. Thus, I decided to stay back in Udaipur and joined a coaching centre here,” Kapit told TOI.

Marks aren’t the end of the world

Though the 17-year-old was quite confident of his preparations, a perfect score was something no one had expected.

“I knew I could score the first rank but never thought that it would be the magical 360 figure,” he said.

Kalpit’s father Pushpendra Veerval is a male nurse at the Government MB hospital while his mother Pushpa is a government school teacher.

“My parents were particular about my health and made sure that I never suffered even a slight cold or cough. I used to study for 5-6 hours at home daily apart from the time I spent at the school and coaching classes,” he said

“Kalpit had been an extremely bright student who also took keen interest in extra curricular activities at school. He represented the school at national level competition of the Atal Tinkering Labs held by the Niti Aayog last year”, informs the director of his school, Shailendra Somani.

Kalpit had topped the Indian Junior Science Olympiad at the all-India level when he was in the 9th standard and cracked the top spot at the National Talent Search Examination (NTSE) in the 10th grade, reveals his mentor Mohit Wadhwani from Resonance, Udaipur.

Kalpit now desires to pursue computer science from IIT-Mumbai.

Times of India.
dedicated by:
Kavignar Thanigai.

NASA images show how beautiful India looks from space at night

The images compare the composite night-time view of India in 2016 with that of 2012

thanks: Business standard

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.


NASA, space, india space


NASA, space, india space

on Thursday released new global nighttime images of the Earth – including a detailed view of and its surroundings that show how patterns of human settlement changed across the country between 2012 and 2016.

The new images compare the composite night-time view of and its surrounding areas in 2016 with that of 2012.

The two images show how cities have grown and patterns of human settlements have changed across the country during those years, said.

Satellite images of Earth at night – often referred to as “night lights” – have been a source of curiosity for public and a tool for fundamental research for nearly 25 years.

They provide a broad, beautiful view, showing how humans have shaped the planet.

Produced every decade or so, such maps have spawned hundreds of pop-culture uses and dozens of economic, social science and environmental research projects.

A research team led by Earth scientist Miguel Roman of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre in the US plans to find out if night lights imagery could be updated yearly, monthly or even daily.

In the years since the 2011 launch of the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, researchers have been analysing night lights data and developing new software and algorithms to make night lights imagery clearer, more accurate and readily available.

They are now on the verge of providing daily, high- definition views of Earth at night, and are targeting the release of such data to the science community later this year

Since researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and released a new Earth at night map in 2012, Roman and teammates at NASA’s Earth Observing Satellite Data and Information System (EOSDIS) have been working to integrate nighttime data into NASA’s Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and Worldview mapping tools.

The new global composite map of night lights was observed in 2016. The group has examined the different ways that light is radiated, scattered and reflected by land, atmospheric and ocean surfaces.

The principal challenge in nighttime satellite imaging is accounting for the phases of the Moon, which constantly varies the amount of light shining on Earth, though in predictable ways.

Likewise, seasonal vegetation, clouds, aerosols, snow and ice cover, and even faint atmospheric emissions (such as airglow and auroras) change the way light is observed in different parts of the world.

The new maps were produced with data from all months of each year. The team wrote code that picked the clearest night views each month, ultimately combining moonlight-free and moonlight-corrected data.

Suomi NPP observes nearly every location on Earth at roughly 1:30 pm and 1:30 am (local time) each day, observing the planet in vertical 3,000-kilometre strips from pole to pole. Suomi NPP data is freely available to scientists within minutes to hours of acquisition.

Armed with more accurate nighttime environmental products, the team is now automating the processing so that users will be able to view nighttime imagery within hours of acquisition.

This has the potential to aid short-term weather forecasting and disaster response.


Scientists launch campaign to restore Pluto to the planet club

thanks: times of India

Related image


A team of scientists seeking to restore Pluto to planethood launched a campaign on Tuesday to broaden the astronomical classifications which led to its demotion to a “dwarf planet” a decade ago.

Six scientists from institutions across the United States argued that Pluto deserves to be a full planet, along with some 110 other bodies in the solar system, including Earth‘s moon.

In a paper presented at an international planetary science conference at The Woodlands, Texas, the scientists explained that geological properties, such as shape and surface features, should determine what constitutes a planet.

In 2006, the International Astronomical Union, struggling with how to classify a newly discovered icy body beyond Pluto, adopted a definition for a planet based on characteristics that include clearing other objects from its orbital path.

Pluto and its newfound kin in the solar system’s distant Kuiper Belt region were reclassified as dwarf planets, along with Ceres, the biggest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The decision left the solar system with eight planets.

But this definition sidelines the research interests of most planetary scientists, said the paper’s lead author, Kirby Runyon, a doctoral candidate at Johns Hopkins University.

Runyon said he and other planetary scientists are more interested in a planet’s physical characteristics, such as its shape and whether it has mountains, oceans and an atmosphere.

“If you’re interested in the actual intrinsic properties of a world, then the IAU definition is worthless,” he said by phone.

Runyon and colleagues argue that the IAU does not have the authority to set the definition of a planet.

There’s a teachable moment here for the public in terms of scientific literacy and in terms of how scientists do science,” Runyon added. “And that is not by saying, ‘Let’s agree on one thing.’ That’s not science at all.”

Runyon’s group advocates for a sub-classification system, similar to biology’s hierarchal method. This approach would categorize Earth’s moon as a type of planet.

That idea irks California Institute of Technology astronomer Mike Brown, who discovered the Kuiper Belt object that cast Pluto out of the planet club.

“It really takes blinders to not look at the solar system and see the profound differences between the eight planets in their stately circular orbits and then the millions and millions of tiny bodies flitting in and out between the planets and being tossed around by them,” he wrote in an email.

World Facing ‘Largest Humanitarian Crisis’ Since 1945: United Nations

World Facing 'Largest Humanitarian Crisis' Since 1945: United Nations


UNITED NATIONS:  The world is facing its “largest humanitarian crisis” since 1945, said the United Nations (UN), further issuing a plea for help to avoid “a catastrophe”.

Stephen O’Brien, UN’s Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, said that more than 20 million people are facing the threat of starvation and famine in Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and Nigeria, as reported by the BBC.

“We stand at a critical point in history,” O’Brien told the Security Council on Friday.

“Already at the beginning of the year we are facing the largest humanitarian crisis since the creation of the UN.”

UNICEF has already warned that 1.4 million children could starve to death in 2017. Mr O’Brien said $4.4 billion is needed by July to avert a disaster.

“Now, more than 20 million people across four countries face starvation and famine. Without collective and coordinated global efforts, people will simply starve to death. Many more will suffer and die from disease,” he added.

According to the UN, a child dies every 10 minutes in Yemen from a preventable disease, while half-a-million children under five are suffering from acute malnutrition. Some 19 million people – or two thirds of Yemen’s population – are in need of some sort of humanitarian help.

In South Sudan, 4.9 million people – or 40 per cent of the country’s population – are “in need of urgent food, agriculture and nutrition assistance,” BBC quoted the UN as saying.

The UN has described the unfolding disaster in north-eastern Nigeria as the “greatest crisis on the continent”.  Estimates in December 2016 showed that there were 75,000 children at risk of starving to death. Another 7.1 million people in Nigeria and the neighbouring Lake Chad area are considered “severely food insecure”.

Six years ago, when a famine was declared in Somalia, nearly 260,000 people died. At the beginning of March, there were reports of 110 people dying in just one region in a 48-hour period, the UN added.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.

thanks: NDTV



unfortunate woman is said to be the most fertile woman ….Kavignar Thanigai.

She was just 40-years-old (Photo: AFP)


Gaza: Motherhood is supposed to be a wonderful experience of life, but with lack of awareness and certain societal pressures giving birth can actually turn out to be an ordeal for some women that can even result in death.

A similar shocking incident has surfaced from Gaza, where a woman died bearing the brunt for lack of awareness about contraception and family planning. She lost her life after giving birth to her 69th child at the age of just 40 years.
While the unfortunate woman is said to be the most fertile woman as per statistics, a woman from Russia going by the name Vassilyeva holds the record of giving birth to 69 children, which involved 16 twins and seven sets of triplets with four quadruplets.

she was just 40

dedicated by :Kavignar Thanigai

thanks: Deccan Chronicle

Indian-American teen boy makes drinking saltwater a possibility!

Indian-American teen boy makes drinking saltwater a possibility!


thanks: Z news

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

New Delhi: Environmental scientists have been concerned with regard to drying water bodies as a result of severe climate change. Many areas around the world are slowly falling short of drinking water, leaving scientists in a tizzy.


Of course, oceans are full of it and they soon might be the only respite, going by the rate at which climate change is working. But drinking saltwater has never been even a remote consideration. How do we separate the salt from the water?

Well, an Indian-American teenage boy has the answer! Chaitanya Karamchedu has made that possible by finding a cheaper and easier method to turn salt water into drinkable fresh water!

Karamchedu’s research, which began as a science experiment in his high school classroom, is turning quite a few heads and has caught the attention of major technology firms and universities.

The Jesuit High School Senior told KPTV that he has big plans of changing the world.

“1 in 8 people do not have access to clean water, it’s a crying issue that needs to be addressed,” said Karamchedu.

He made up his mind to address the matter himself.

“The best access for water is the sea, so 70 per cent of the planet is covered in water and almost all of that is the ocean, but the problem is that’s salt water,” said Karamchedu.

Isolating drinkable water from the ocean in a cost effective way is a problem that has stumped scientists for years.

“Scientists looked at desalination, but it’s all still inaccessible to places and it would cost too much to implement on a large scale,” Karamchedu said.

Karamchedu figured it out, on his own, in a high school lab.

“The real genesis of the idea was realising that sea water is not fully saturated with salt,” he was quoted as saying.

By experimenting with a highly absorbent polymer, the teen discovered a cost effective way to remove salt from ocean water and turn it into fresh water.

“It’s not bonding with water molecules, it’s bonding to the salt,” said Karamchedu.

“People have been looking at the problem from one view point, how do we break those bonds between salt and the water? Chai came in and thought about it from a completely different angle,” said Jesuit High School Biology Teacher Dr. Lara Shamieh.

“People were concentrated on that 10 per cent of water that’s bonded to the salt in the sea and no one looked at the 90 per cent that was free. Chai just looked at it and said if 10 per cent is bonded and 90 per cent is free, then why are we so focused on this 10 per cent, let’s ignore it and focus on the 90,” Shamieh said.

It is a breakthrough that is estimated to impact millions of lives if ever implemented on a mass scale.

“What this is compared to current techniques, is that it’s cheap and accessible to everyone, everyone can use it,” said Shamieh.

Scientists across the country are taking note. He won a USD 10,000 award from the US Agency for International Global Development at Intel’s International Science Fair and second place at MIT’s TechCon Conference where he won more money to continue his research.

“They were very encouraging, they could see things into it that I couldn’t, because they’ve been working their whole lives on this,” said Karamchedu.

Back in January, Karamchedu was also named one of 300 Regeneron Science Talent Search Semifinalists. The STS is thought to be one of the most prestigious competitions in the country for high school seniors.

moon is older than we thought


This makes the Earth’s satellite up to 140 million years older than previously thought.

The Moon is at least 4.51 billion years old — up to 140 million years older than previously thought, according to a new study of minerals called zircons brought back from the lunar body to the Earth by the Apollo 14 mission in 1971.

The Moon’s age has been a hotly debated topic, even though scientists have tried to settle the question over many years and using a wide range of scientific techniques.

“We have finally pinned down a minimum age for the Moon; it is time we knew its age and now we do,” said Melanie Barboni, research geochemist at University of California, Los Angeles (UCLA) in the United States.

Head-on collision created it

The Moon was formed by a violent, head-on collision between the early Earth and a “planetary embryo” called Theia.

The new study would mean that Moon formed “only” about 60 million years after the birth of the solar system, providing critical information for astronomers and planetary scientists who seek to understand the early evolution of the Earth and our solar system, researchers said.

That has been a difficult task, Ms. Barboni said, because “whatever was there before the giant impact has been erased.”

While scientists cannot know what occurred before the collision with Theia, these findings are important because they will help scientists continue to piece together major events that followed it.

How it was arrived at

It is usually difficult to determine the age of Moon rocks because most of them contain a patchwork of fragments of multiple other rocks. However, Ms. Barboni was able to analyse eight zircons in pristine condition.

She examined how the uranium they contained had decayed to lead and how the lutetium they contained had decayed to an element called hafnium.

The researchers analysed those elements together to determine the Moon’s age.

Zircons are the best clocks

“Zircons are nature’s best clocks. They are the best mineral in preserving geological history and revealing where they originated,” said Kevin McKeegan, a UCLA professor of geochemistry and cosmo-chemistry.

The Earth’s collision with Theia created a liquefied Moon, which then solidified. Scientists believe most of the Moon’s surface was covered with magma right after its formation.

The uranium-lead measurements reveal when the zircons first appeared in the Moon’s initial magma ocean, which later cooled down and formed the Moon’s mantle and crust; the lutetium-hafnium measurements reveal when its magma formed, which happened earlier.

Previous studies concluded the Moon’s age based on Moon rocks that had been contaminated by multiple collisions.

Professor McKeegan said those rocks indicated the date of some other events, “but not the age of the Moon.”

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.


Boy or girl? Mother’s BP may predict sex of baby

thanks: Times of India

Image result for boy or girl


Toronto: The sex of a baby may be predicted by the mother’s blood pressure, according to a new study which found that women with lower BP before pregnancy are more likely to give birth to a girl.

Researchers led by Dr Ravi Retnakaran, endocrinologist at Mount Sinai Hospital in Canada found that while higher blood pressure was an indication that a boy was more likely to be conceived, women with lower blood pressure tended to give birth to a girl.

This “suggests that a woman’s blood pressure before pregnancy is a previously unrecognised factor that is associated with her likelihood of delivering a boy or a girl,” said Retnakaran.

“This novel insight may hold implications for both reproductive planning and our understanding of the fundamental mechanisms underlying the sex ratio in humans,” he said.

The possibility of predicting the sex of the baby in early pregnancy has long been a topic of public fascination, spawning numerous theories of maternal characteristics associated with the presence of a male or female foetus.

These observations raise the possibility that there may be underlying differences that relate to a woman’s likelihood of sex-specific fetal loss and hence her likelihood of delivering a boy or girl. However, little is known about such factors in humans.

Researchers established a unique pre-conception cohort consisting of young women who were planning to have a pregnancy in the near future and used the model to evaluate the relationship between maternal pre-pregnancy health and the sex of the baby.

Participants underwent baseline medical assessment at recruitment and then, whenever they subsequently became pregnant, were followed across the pregnancy up to delivery through their clinical care.

Beginning in February 2009, researchers recruited 3375 women in Liuyang, China. Of these, 1,692 women were assessed for blood pressure, cholesterol, triglycerides, and glucose.

After the exclusion of 281 women who were potentially pregnant at their baseline assessment based on back-dating of the length of gestation at delivery, the study population for the analysis consisted of 1,411 women who were assessed at median 26.3 weeks before pregnancy.

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.


THANKS PTI, times of india

WASHINGTON: The human appendix, which is thought to be of little use to the body, may actually serve as a reservoir for beneficial gut bacteria, a new study has found. The appendix, a narrow pouch that projects off the caecum in the digestive system, has a notorious reputation for its tendency to become inflamed (appendicitis), often needing surgical removal.

Researchers from the Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine in the US gathered data on the presence or absence of the appendix and other gastrointestinal and environmental traits for 533 mammal species.

Image result for appendix meaning

Latest Comment

It should be very well understood that God has not created any organ in the human body which is not useful.Natanam Iyer

They mapped the data onto a phylogeny (genetic tree) to track how the appendix has evolved through evolution, and to try to determine why some species have an appendix while others do not. They discovered that the appendix has evolved independently in several mammal lineages, and almost never disappears from a lineage once it has appeared. This suggests that the appendix likely serves an adaptive purpose.

They found out that species with an appendix have higher average concentrations of lymphoid (immune) tissue in the caecum. Lymphatic tissue can stimulate growth of some types of beneficial gut bacteria.



Rare Comet Will Be Visible From Earth For First Time: NASA

by: NDTV



Rare Comet Will Be Visible From Earth For First Time: NASA


WASHINGTON:  A rare comet discovered by NASA scientists will be visible using just binoculars to skywatchers on Earth this week for the first time, before the object heads back into outer reaches of the solar system for an orbit lasting thousands of years.

The comet, C/2016 U1 NEOWISE, “has a good chance of becoming visible through a good pair of binoculars, although we can’t be sure because a comet’s brightness is notoriously unpredictable,” said Paul Chodas, manager of NASA’s Centre for Near-Earth Object (NEO) Studies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the US.

As seen from the northern hemisphere during the first week of 2017, comet C/2016 U1 NEOWISE will be in the southeastern sky shortly before dawn.

It is moving farther south each day and it will reach its closest point to the Sun, inside the orbit of Mercury, on January 14, before heading back out to the outer reaches of the solar system for an orbit lasting thousands of years. While it will be visible to skywatchers at Earth, it is not considered a threat to our planet either.

NASA’s NEOWISE mission has recently discovered some celestial objects travelling through our neighbourhood, including one on the blurry line between asteroid and comet. An object called 2016 WF9 was detected by the NEOWISE project on November 27 last year.

It is in an orbit that takes it on a scenic tour of our solar system. At its farthest distance from the Sun, it approaches Jupiter’s orbit.

Over the course of 4.9 Earth-years, it travels inward, passing under the main asteroid belt and the orbit of Mars until it swings just inside Earth’s own orbit. After that, it heads back toward the outer solar system.

Objects in these types of orbits have multiple possible origins; it might once have been a comet, or it could have strayed from a population of dark objects in the main asteroid belt.

2016 WF9 will approach Earth’s orbit on February 25 this year. At a distance of nearly 51 million kilometres from Earth, this pass will not bring it particularly close.

The trajectory of 2016 WF9 is well understood, and the object is not a threat to Earth for the foreseeable future. A different object, discovered by NEOWISE a month earlier, is more clearly a comet, releasing dust as it nears the Sun.

NEOWISE is the asteroid-and-comet-hunting portion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission.

2016 WF9 is relatively large: roughly 0.5 to 1 kilometre across. It is also rather dark, reflecting only a few percent of the light that falls on its surface.

This body resembles a comet in its reflectivity and orbit, but appears to lack the characteristic dust and gas cloud that defines a comet.

“2016 WF9 could have cometary origins,” said Deputy Principal Investigator James Bauer at JPL.

“This object illustrates that the boundary between asteroids and comets is a blurry one; perhaps over time this object has lost the majority of the volatiles that linger on or just under its surface,” said Bauer.

Astroboffins glimpse sighting of ultra-rare circular galaxy- kavignar Thanigai.

A rarer-than-rare galaxy 359 million light years away from Earth has been spotted by physicists.

Hoags Object

Designated PGC 1000714 [paywalled], the galaxy is a ring-shape system orbiting a cooler centre without any connection between the two – a formation referred to as Hoag’s Object.

Just 0.1 per cent of all observed galaxies are Hoag-type systems; the majority follow the hub and spiral-arm standard like our own Milky Way or the neighbouring Andromeda. PGC 1000714 is rarer still, though.

Hoag’s Object, discovered 67 years ago by astronomer Arthur Allan Hoag and named after him, features a single ring of blue stars orbiting a yellow core.

PGC 1000714 features a second ring of blue stars with both rings orbiting a red core.

Nobody has yet managed to adequately explain the formation of the original Hoag’s Object – never mind the related-yet-different PGC 1000714, which was spotted by scientists at the University of Minnesota Duluth and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences.

Burcin Mutlu-Pakdil, lead author of a paper on this work, said in a statement: “The different colors of the inner and outer ring suggest that this galaxy has experienced two different formation periods.”

Galaxy rings are regions where stars have formed from colliding gas – hence the reason for the different colours.

“From these initial single snapshots in time, it’s impossible to know how the rings of this particular galaxy were formed,” Mutlu-Pakdil said.

One possibility is that the outer ring may be the result of this galaxy incorporating portions of a once-nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

The galaxy was spotted and analysed using multi-waveband images from observations in the southern hemisphere, using a large-diameter telescope in the Chilean mountains. These images were used to determine the ages of the two main features of the galaxy, the outer ring and the central body.

The outer ring is 0.13 billion years old and the red core 5.5 billion years. Higher-resolution images are needed to infer the age of the inner ring.

The original Hoag’s Object, spotted in 1950, shows a ring of blue stars spanning 100,000 light years and lying 600 million light years away in Serpens Constellation. ®

thanks : the register, Science

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Scientists have discovered a new organ in the human digestive system.:Kavignar Thanigai.

Did you know human beings have a brand new organ? (It was hiding in plain sight)

Scientists have discovered a new organ in the human digestive system.



Scientists in Ireland have classified a brand-new organ inside human body, one that has been hiding in plain sight in our digestive system, proving the anatomic description laid down over 100 years of anatomy as incorrect. Researchers hope that the reclassification will aid better understanding and treatment of abdominal and digestive diseases.

The mesentery, which connects the intestine to the abdomen, had for hundreds of years been considered a fragmented structure made up of multiple separate parts. However, new research by J Calvin Coffey, Professor of Surgery at University of Limerick in Ireland, describes the mesentery as one, continuous structure.

In a review published in the journal The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Coffey outlined the evidence for categorising the mesentery as an organ. “In the paper, which has been peer reviewed and assessed, we are now saying we have an organ in the body which has not been acknowledged as such to date,” Coffey said. Better understanding and further scientific study of the mesentery could lead to less invasive surgeries, fewer complications, faster patient recovery and lower overall costs.

“When we approach it like every other organ, we can categorise abdominal disease in terms of this organ,” Coffey said.

Also see

According to Coffey, mesenteric science is its own specific field of medical study in the same way as gastroenterology, neurology and coloproctology. “This is relevant universally as it affects all of us. Up to now there was no such field as mesenteric science. Now we have established anatomy and the structure. The next step is the function.

“If you understand the function you can identify abnormal function, and then you have disease. Put them all together and you have the field of mesenteric science. The basis for a whole new area of science,” he said. “During the initial research, we noticed in particular that the mesentery, which connects the gut to the body, was one continuous organ. Up to that it was regarded as fragmented, present here, absent elsewhere and a very complex structure.

“The anatomic description that had been laid down over 100 years of anatomy was incorrect. This organ is far from fragmented and complex. It is simply one continuous structure,” Coffey said.


According to Coffey, mesenteric science is its own specific field of medical study in the same way as gastroenterology, neurology and coloproctology. “This is relevant universally as it affects all of us. Up to now there was no such field as mesenteric science. Now we have established anatomy and the structure. The next step is the function.

“If you understand the function you can identify abnormal function, and then you have disease. Put them all together and you have the field of mesenteric science. The basis for a whole new area of science,” he said. “During the initial research, we noticed in particular that the mesentery, which connects the gut to the body, was one continuous organ. Up to that it was regarded as fragmented, present here, absent elsewhere and a very complex structure.

“The anatomic description that had been laid down over 100 years of anatomy was incorrect. This organ is far from fragmented and complex. It is simply one continuous structure,” Coffey said.


dedicated by|Kavignar Thanigai

thanks to Indian express.Jan.4th

India is top in Road accidents: kavignar Thanigai.

thanks to :NDTV

Image result for india is topper in road accidents



NEW DELHI:  The year 2014 alone witnessed 2.37 lakh road accidents on national and state highways across the country which had left at least 85,462 people dead and 2.59 lakh injured.

These were the sensational findings in official statistics placed before the Supreme Court, which noted that as per 2009 data, India had reported the highest number of road accident fatalities in the world which clearly indicated that a road accident occurred every four minutes.

India can avoid the tag of being the “accident capital of the world”, was how the top court reacted on scanning the figures of vehicular deaths over the past several years while stressing on the need for “proper enforcement” of law preventing drunken driving.

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The Supreme Court said proper enforcement of law was needed for a nation like India, which is on the cusp of economic development, to protect precious human lives from road mishaps specially due to drunken driving.

The remarks were made by the top court in its December 15 judgement by which it ordered a ban on all liquor shops on national and state highways across the country while making it clear that licenses of the existing shops will not be renewed after March 31 next year.

“Human life is precious. As the road network expands in India, road infrastructure being an integral part of economic development, accidents profoundly impact on the life of common citizen. For a nation on the cusp of economic development, India can well avoid the tag of being the accident capital of the world,” a three-judge bench headed by Chief Justice T S Thakur said.

The bench, also comprising Justices D Y Chandrachud and L Nageswara Rao, took note of the statistics placed before it by the government agencies, according to which total number of persons killed in road accidents on the national highways was 48,768 in 2012 which shot up to 51,204 in 2015.

In 2014, there were 1.24 lakh accident cases resulting in 46,110 deaths and 1.35 lakh persons injured in mishaps on the national highways while on state highways, the figure was 1.13 lakh accidents in which 1.24 lakh people were injured and 39,352 had been killed.

“The expressways witnessed 4,208 accident cases, 4,229 injured and 1,802 deaths. Figures are also available of the distribution of road accidents by causes during 2014. 1.38 lakh persons were injured in road accidents involving dangerous or careless driving and 42,127 deaths occurred.

“Injuries caused in accidents due to over-speeding stood at 1.81 lakh while there were 48,654 deaths. 7,307 accident cases involving driving under the influence of drugs/alcohol were registered resulting in 7,398 injuries and 2,591 deaths,” the bench noted in its order.

The top court further said that on December 1, 2011, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, in an advisory issued to Chief Secretaries of all the States and Union Territories, had noted that India had reported the highest number of road accident fatalities in the world and data of 2009 indicated that a road accident occurred every four minutes.

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It said that in the advisory, it was said that drunken driving was a “leading cause” of road accidents as 27,152 road accidents was caused under the influence of alcohol in 2009.

The bench said that in another advisory of March 18, 2013, the ministry had stated that in 2011, 1.42 lakh people were killed in 4.9 lakhs road accidents and 24,655 accidents were caused due to drunken driving resulting in 10,553 deaths and injuries to 21,148 persons.

Referring to another advisory of May 2014, the top court said that in 2012, 1.38 lakh people were killed in 4.9 lakh road accidents out of which 23,979 accidents were caused due to drunken driving resulting in 7835 deaths and injuries to 23,403 persons.

The bench observed that availability of liquor along the highways is an “opportunity to consume” and there are alarming statistics on the occurrence of road accidents which have claimed human lives and caused debility and injury.

“The figures which are available on the record indicate that the occurrence of a large number of road accidents is neither a phenomenon confined to national highways nor is prevalence of road accidents, including fatalities, confined only to the national highways.

“Both the national highways and state highways share a common experience of an unacceptably high number of road accidents, the prevalence injuries and fatalities; drunken driving being one of the major causes,” it said.

The bench observed that highways and expressways provides seamless connectivity and unheralded opportunities for growth of trade and industry and for the movement of goods, persons and capital and are the backbone of the freedom of trade and commerce guaranteed by Article 301 of the Constitution.

“Our highways are dotted with sign boards warning of the dangers of combining speed and alcohol. Together, they constitute a heady cocktail. The availability of liquor along the highways is an opportunity to consume.

“Easy access to liquor shops allows for drivers of vehicles to partake in alcohol, in callous disregard to their own safety and the safety of others,” the top court said.

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Time changes to send humans to backwards….Kavignar Thanigai.

thanks: Economic times

Image result for pubic hair growing is good recent report



Shaving pubic hair will put you at a higher risk of sexually-transmitted infections

PARIS: People who shave, wax, or trim their pubic hair are at higher risk of sexually-transmitted infections (STIs), but less likely to get lice, a study suggested on Tuesday.

A survey of more than 7,500 Americans aged 18 to 65, found that pubic groomers had an 80 percent higher STI risk than people who leave their nether regions hairy.

For certain infections, including herpes and chlamydia, the risk was highest among those who groomed most frequently and “intensely”, t ..

the researchers found.

The study merely observed a correlation between grooming and STIs, and cannot conclude that one causes the other.

But the authors speculated that shaving or waxing may cause “microtears” in the skin, creating easy access for viruses.

Sharing tools such as razors may also be a risk, they said, citing a case of HIV transmission between brothers using the same blade.

“As a third possible explanation for our findings, individ .. individuals who groom may be more likely to engage in risky sexual behaviours than those who do not groom,” said the study published in the journal Sexually Transmitted Infections.

Pubic hair grooming, it explained, “is correlated with an increased number of lifetime sexual partners and is viewed as a preparatory act to sexual engagement”.

For the research, 7,580 people completed a questionnaire on their intimate hair-control, sex lives and STI history.

Se .. Seventy-four percent of respondents were pubic hair groomers — 66 percent of men and 84 percent of women.

The trial participants were divided into “extreme groomers” who removed all pubic hair more than 11 times a year, high-frequency groomers who trimmed daily or weekly, low-frequency groomers, and non-groomers.

The main methods used were razors, scissors and wax. Men mostly used an electric razor and women a manual one.

One in five of both genders used s .. One in five of both genders used scissors.

Groomers, the study found, were younger overall and reported a larger number of annual and total lifetime sexual partners — even more so for extreme groomers.

They also had more frequent weekly and daily sex than people who prefer to go “au naturel” down there.

A greater proportion of groomers, 14 percent, reported having had an STI during their lifetime, than non-groomers at eight percent, the study found.

For extreme groomers, the percentage was 18 percent.

STIs included herpes, syphilis, human papillomavirus (HPV), chlamydia, HIV, gonorrhoea and a skin virus called Molluscum contagiosum, or MCV.

Such infections can have serious long-term consequences such as infertility, certain cancers and higher rates of HIV transmission.

On the other end of the spectrum, the team found, low-intensity groomers had a higher risk of pubic lice infestation.

This ..
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his suggested “grooming might make it harder for lice to breed successfully,” the team said in a statement.

Better understanding the relationship between pubic hair grooming and STIs may help single out “high-risk individuals” for safe-sex education, the team said.

They may also be advised to dehair less frequently or severely, or to delay sex after grooming to allow time for the skin to heal.

Pubic hair grooming has become a common phenomenon worldwide, wi .. with popular media changing people’s definition of attractiveness, cleanliness and “genital normalcy”, said the study.

Want to improve your memory? Just have more sex

thanks: India Today

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Image result for want to improve memory have more sex

Strengthening memory could not be more pleasurable–at least for women–that’s what new research suggests. Researchers have found that more frequent sexual intercourse may strengthen women’s ability to remember words.

“These results suggest that PVI (penile-vaginal intercourse) may indeed have beneficial effects on memory function in healthy young women,” said the study by researchers at McGill University in Montreal.

Previous studies had reported the beneficial effects sexual intercourse on memory function in animal models.

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So, Larah Maunder and colleagues wanted to test if frequency of sexual intercourse was related to memory function in healthy female college students.

To determine whether variation in penile-vaginal intercourse would be associated with memory performance, the researchers asked 78 heterosexual women aged 18-29 years to complete a computerised memory paradigm consisting of abstract words and neutral faces.

Results published in the journal Archives of Sexual Behavior showed that frequency of sex was positively associated with memory scores for abstract words, but not faces.

The researchers found that frequent sex resulted in the growth of new tissue in the hippocampus–thought to be the centre of emotion, memory, and the autonomic nervous system.

“Because memory for words depends to a large extent on the hippocampus, whereas memory for faces may rely to a greater extent on surrounding extra-hippocampal structures, our results appear to be specific for memory believed to rely on hippocampal function,” the researchers explained.

“This may suggest that neurogenesis in the hippocampus is higher in those women with a higher frequency of PVI, in line with previous animal research,” the study said.

Why it’s easier for India to get to Mars than to tackle its toilet challenge

thanks to shyama ramani and business standard

dedicated by: KAVIGNAR THANIGAI.


In 2013, became the fourth country in the world (after Russia, the United States and the European Union) and the only emerging nation to launch a Mars probe into space. But it remains part of the group of 45 developing countries with less than 50% sanitation coverage, with many citizens practising open defecation, either due to lack of access to a or because of personal preference.

According to the Indian census of 2011, only 46.9% of the 246.6 million households in had their own facilities, while 3.2% had access to public toilets. In this context, the remaining 49.8% households had no option but to defecate in the open. As a point of comparison, in 2011 53.2% of households had a mobile phone. In rural areas, where nearly 69% of India’s population lives, 69.3% of households lack toilets; in urban areas that number falls to 18.6%.

At first glance, such statistics and technological capabilities alongside large-scale open defecation is a puzzle. On the supply side, it does not seem difficult for a country that can construct sophisticated and complex cell phone technology to develop the capacity to build simple low-cost toilets. And for users, a evidently offers more social benefits in terms of health and human dignity than a telephone.

Yet the citizenry has not enthusiastically adopted low-cost toilets, especially rural households. Why? Let us explore the reasons for this paradoxical outcome.

At a systemic level, economists have pointed out that technical and commercial availability and consumer acceptability of an innovation are the two main drivers of its diffusion. Evidently both are a problem in India.

For firms, it makes business sense to provide mobile phones in a variety of quality-price ranges as the network infrastructure is well developed and demand for this communication tool is assured. However, they are not interested in selling low-cost toilets to the poor, as the need for that product is not supported by a willingness or capacity to pay for it.

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State programmes for sanitation coverage

Because companies are disinclined to market a product that requires investment in awareness and demand creation, the state must step in.

From the mid-1980s till the late 1990s, when adopted economic reform, toilets were distributed free via the top-down state-funded Central Rural Sanitation Programme. But the programme, which assumed that availability would automatically lead to usage, failed because most beneficiaries did not see the need or have the desire for sanitation.

Consequently, in the new millennium, the Indian government switched to demand-focused interventions. Today, the state is a financier for public-private partnerships involving NGOs, micro-finance companies and other social enterprises that interact closely with the targeted beneficiaries to provide accompaniment and education for sanitation literacy and use.

The Total Sanitation Campaign launched in April 1999, emphasised that “Information, Education and Communication” should precede sanitation construction to ensure sustained demand and behavioural change.

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State investment in sanitation thereafter received another fillip under Prime Minister Narendra Modi. He is the first politician since Mahatma Gandhi to emphatically underscore, through major media campaigns, that a “clean India” is necessary for the well-being of its citizens.

On October 2, 2014, to commemorate Mahatma Gandhi’s birth anniversary, Modi inaugurated the Swachh Bharath Mission, or the Clean Mission. Unlike the earlier state programmes, it recognises that “availability” does not guarantee “acceptability”. The central objective of the mission is to eliminate open defecation in by 2019, not just to ensure universal sanitation coverage.

The target is to transform villages and cities into “open defecation-free” communities, meaning they demonstrate: access, use and technology that keeps both people and the environment safe. The programme invests in capacity building in the form of trained personnel, financial incentives and systems for planning and monitoring to ensure behavioural change. States are given flexibility in terms of implementation. Today, a variety of experiments, from the to village level, are underway to achieve Modi’s Clean mission.

It’s not just about building toiletsImage result for mars than toilet usage of India

But for India, providing access to some form of a is the easy part. What’s harder is getting people to use them. In rural areas, toilet-rejection varies by gender.

An ongoing study based on 300 focus groups with men across the country revealed that they prefer open defecation to a because it: saves water; provides access to fresh water and a breezy environment; lowers the wear and tear of the toilet; protects women from getting embarrassed by the sight of men; and offers a handy excuse to escape importunate wives and mothers.

Public agencies try to persuade families to invest in toilets for the safety of their young girls. But in Tamil Nadu villages, another focus group-based study – this one with female teachers and girls – revealed that a central advantage of open defecation is that it offers opportunities for same-sex social interactions for females.

Girls and women in many regions are not allowed to gather in public places to debate issues, exchange ideas or simply relax together. Adolescents face even greater restrictions, because older women often sanction free discussion among youngsters. In this regard, open defecation rendezvous offer an excuse to talk and spend time together free, from other constraints.

In the isolated villages we visited with largely Dalit and fisherfolk populations in Tamil Nadu, the risk of sexual harassment is not perceived to be high enough to make toilets a safe haven. Thus, to eliminate open defecation in such villages, alternative safe gendered spaces for social interactions are needed first.

Cooperation between the playersImage result for mars than toilet usage of India

India’s additional challenge is to diffuse not just any but a high-quality, long-lasting, non-contaminating product that minimises water and soil pollution and promotes sustained use. This will require that the sanitation subsystem (i.e. the part under the seat/slab), and its waste-processing technology design to be adapted to the geo-physical features of the targeted zone, taking into account soil type, rainfall, water table, water availability, wind velocity and slope.

Thousands of toilets lie abandoned in either never used or abandoned after short use, due to poor construction quality or inappropriate technology design.

The Conversation logo

When a toilet’s superstructure begins to deteriorate or the toilets stop working well, problems can emerge. For example, if the family can’t afford or doesn’t want to invest in repairs, or if there isn’t a local agency to repair toilets (which is often the case), foul odours and leaks may begin. This, in turn, creates negative perceptions about toilets, which may trigger a bandwagon effect such that whole the community ultimately returns to open defecation.

Thus, it is imperative to ensure quality construction in sanitation drives and trained rural masons for individual construction initiatives.
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To address this need, various institutions are teaching masonry to youth with little formal education. But there is no common standardised programme that focuses on sanitation systems. Moreover, illiterate rural masons may be intimidated by formal courses and thus fail to attend.

At the same time, since masons learn their craft by doing, or through apprenticeships, their learning is slow, shaky and tacit – meaning that two people with the same skill set may execute a project differently. There is a need to address these issues while promoting skills building.

For an emerging country like India, it is easier to take part in exploratory missions to Mars than to tackle its sanitation challenge. The former can be addressed through a linear process spearheaded by the advanced, well-resourced Indian Space Research Organisation, while the latter calls for systemic change encompassing thousands of towns and villages.

For to meet its goal of eliminating open defecation, it will need cooperation and coordination between a diverse variety of systemic actors, generation of knowledge products in the form of accessible curriculum for masons, and community engagement to build only safe toilets – and to use them well.Image result for mars than toilet usage of India

thanks: Conversation

dark matter 85%, we un known _we know only 15 percent.

The Hubble image shows the Bullet cluster, studies of which have given the best evidence of dark matter.


thanks :the hindu 12th Nov.2016.

dedicated by: kavignar Thanigi.

The work sets a bound on the axion mass which can guide experiments

Dark matter is as mysterious as it sounds – very little is known about it, save that it makes up about 85 per cent of all the matter in the universe. Now, German and Hungarian scientists have thrown some light on a type of dark matter particle that has been postulated, known as the axion. They have established that axions can have a mass between 50 and 1500 micro electron volts, making them some ten billion times lighter than the electron. This computation has been published in the journal Nature. An interesting fact is that these calculations were done numerically using a (Bluegen/Q) super computer, JuQueen, housed in the Julich Supercomputer Centre in Germany.

Dark matter is so known because it interacts weakly with matter and so is notoriously difficult to detect. Yet, indirect proof of its existence comes from observation of rapidly rotating galaxies, which cannot be held together merely by the gravitational pull of the matter they contain – there has to be a lot of invisible stuff known as “dark matter” to prevent them from flying apart with the force of their own energies. Such inferences imply that nearly 85 per cent of the universe is made of dark matter, the known matter only contributes 15 per cent.

Several candidate particles have been postulated that may constitute dark matter – both highly massive and lightweight – but none of the experiments have detected any such particle so far, directly. Axions are particles proposed by extending quantum chromodynamics (QCD) the theory that describes “strong interactions,” the way quarks and gluons bond to form matter particles such as protons, neutrons etc. Though they have been proposed and there are experiments to study them (for instance, the Axion Dark Matter Experiment, ADMX), there has been no real handle on these until now. The present work sets a mass bound on the axions, between 50 and 1500 micro electron volts, as mentioned earlier. This would require that there exist ten million such particles for every cubic centimetre of the universe. Also, because dark matter is not evenly spread out, but occurs in clumps, there should be nearly a trillion axions per cubic centimetre in the Milky Way – our galaxy.

Knowing the expected mass range of the axion not only gives a better understanding of the particle itself, but also can serve as a guideline for doing experiments. Instead of firing in the dark, ADMX, for instance, now has a definite range to study keenly.

Keywords: Dark matter

Two super moon still we can see in 2016- Kavignar Thanigai.

thanks: Times of India and IANS

Brightest ‘supermoon’ in 70 years on Monday

NEW YORK: Spotting a full moon always reminds us of our loved ones and on Monday you should prepare yourself for the largest and brightest moon in nearly 70 years.

The upcoming “supermoon” on Monday will be the closest full moon to Earth since 1948 and people on Earth will not see another “supermoon” of this magnitude until 2034.

According to NASA, the moon’s orbit around Earth is slightly elliptical so sometimes it is closer and sometimes it is farther away. When the moon is full as it makes its closest pass to Earth, it is known as a supermoon.

At perigree – the point at which the moon is closest to Earth – the moon can be as much as 14 per cent closer to Earth than at apogee — when the moon is farthest from our planet.

On Monday, the moon will be at perigee just after dusk in India.

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The full moon appears that much larger in diameter and because it is larger, it shines 30 per cent more moonlight onto the Earth.

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Brightest SuperMORON is existing since almost 50 years in the country…Look at Pappu.Shyamal

“The difference in distance from one night to the next will be very subtle. Any time after sunset should be fine. Since the moon is full, it’ll rise at nearly the same time as sunset. You don’t have to stay up all night to see it, unless you really want to!” said Noah Petro, deputy project scientist for NASA’s Lunar Reconnaissance Orbiter (LRO) mission.

This is actually the second of three supermoons in a row, so if the clouds do not cooperate for you this weekend, you will have another chance next month to see the last supermoon of 2016 on December 14.

Stay updated on the go with Times of India News App. Click here to download it for your device.

NASA builds telescope 100 times powerful than Hubble

An important component of the James Webb space telescope is on display at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Maryland, U.S., on Wednesday.


James Webb Space Telescope, successor of 26-year-old Hubble, may find the first galaxies that were formed in the early universe.

The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) of the United States has successfully completed building the largest space telescope — one that is 100 times powerful than the Hubble Space Telescope and may find the first galaxies that were formed in the early universe.

thanks: The Hindu and PTI
dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

The James Webb Space Telescope will be the successor of NASA’s 26-year-old Hubble.

The Webb telescope’s infrared cameras are so sensitive that it needs to be shielded from the rays of the Sun. A five-layer sunshield of the size of a tennis court will prevent the heat from interfering with the telescope’s infrared sensors.

The layers work together to reduce the temperatures between the hot and cold sides of the observatory by about 298 degrees Celsius. Each successive layer of the sunshield, made of kapton, is cooler than the one below.

The space agency has also made the first important optical measurement of James Webb Space Telescope fully assembled primary mirror, called a Center of Curvature test.

“This is the only test of the entire mirror where we can use the same equipment during a before and after test,” said Ritva Keski-Kuha, NASA’s Deputy telescope manager for Webb.

“This test will show if there are any changes or damages to the optical system,” Keski-Kuha said.

The space telescope will provide images of the first galaxies ever formed, and explore planets around distant stars.

It is a joint project of the NASA, the European Space Agency and the Canadian Space Agency.

Want to keep pneumonia at bay? Visit your dentist twice a year

NEW YORK: Good oral hygiene can reduce bad bacteria in the mouth and thus decrease the risk of developing pneumonia, a research has found.

The study found that people who never get dental checkups had an 86 per cent greater risk of pneumonia.

Pneumonia is an infection that inflames air sacs in one or both lungs, which may fill with fluid.

The infection is more common among older people and those with conditions such as AIDS or lung disease.

The study found that people who never get dental checkups had an 86 per cent greater risk of pneumonia than those who vi ..never get dental checkups had an 86 per cent greater risk of pneumonia than those who visit the dentist twice a year.

“There is a well-documented connection between oral health and pneumonia, and dental visits are important in maintaining good oral health,” said lead author Michelle Doll, Assistant Professor at Virginia Commonwealth University in the US.

“We can never rid the mouth of bacteria altogether, but good oral hygiene can limit the quantities of bacteria presen ..
The human body contains 10 times as many microbes (bacteria, fungi and viruses) as human cells on or in the body, from the skin to the gastrointestinal system (including the mouth).

Some microbes are good and some are bad, but even bad microbes only cause disease under certain circumstances.

In some cases, bacteria can be accidentally inhaled or aspirated into the lungs and cause pneumonia.

Bacteria that commonly cause pneumonia include streptococcus, haemo .. Routine dental visits may reduce the amount of bacteria that can be aspirated, Doll said.

“Our study provides further evidence that oral health is linked to overall health, and suggests that it’s important to incorporate dental care into routine preventive healthcare,” Doll said.

The research was presented at IDWeek 2016 in Los Angeles, recently.

Read more at:
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thanks: Economic Times
Dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

china have own space station on 2024

China will be the only country to have International Space Station by 2024


The largest artificial habitat present in the space, the International Space Station will retire in the year 2024 while China is developing its own version of International Space Station (ISS). According to reports from China Aerospace Science and Technology Corporation (CASC) China might be the only country to boast an International Space Station and entire world will rely on its service for space research.

China has started launching modules of space lab in the form of Tiangong-1 and Tiangong-2. China launched Tiangong-2 space module using Long March 2F rocket from the Jiuquan Satellite Launch Center at 14:04 UTC on September 14, 2016. China is also preparing Tianhe-1, a core space station module for the launch in 2018 which will be lifted by the most powerful Chinese rocket — Long March 5.

Several other launches will be made in coming years to complete the modular space station and by the end of 2024 it will be the only space station in service, believes CASC which is a major space developer.

China’s modular space station will be made of several modules including one core module and two lab modules. What’s striking is that the space station will have several docking ports for spacecrafts.

According to reports, it will orbit the earth at an altitude of 400 km and will have a lifespan of 10 years. Initiation of blueprint for the Chinese space station dates back to 1992 when scientists made a three-step strategy and it took them nearly three decades to make it a reality. With this, China will become the second country after Russsia to have developed a space station.

At present, scientists look towards International Space Station for space research. ISS was launched back in 1998 and since then it is the largest artificial body present in the space. It orbits Earth at an average altitude of nearly 400 km and it can be seen through naked eyes. It completes 15.54 orbits per day. The ISS serves as a microgravity and space environment research laboratory in which crew members conduct experiments in biology, human biology, physics, astronomy, meteorology, and other fields. Moreover, the ISS programme is a joint project among five participating space agencies: NASA, Roscosmos, JAXA, ESA, and CSA.


thanks: The TeCake.

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

WHO: 90 per cent of the world is breathing polluted air

Economic Times Report

Dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.


Image result for world 90percent population is breathing polluted air


GENEVA: Nine out of 10 people globally are breathing poor quality air, the World Health Organization said today, calling for dramatic action against pollution that is blamed for more than six million deaths a year.

New data in a report from the UN’s global health body “is enough to make all of us extremely concerned,” Maria Neira, the head of the WHO’s department of public health and environment, told reporters.

The problem is most acute in cities, but air in rural area is worse than many think, WHO experts said.

Poorer countries have much dirtier air than the developed world, according to the report, but pollution “affects practically all countries in the world and all parts of society”, Neira said in a statement.

“It is a public health emergency,” she said.

“Fast action to tackle air pollution can’t come soon enough,” she added, urging governments to cut the number of vehicles on the road, improve waste management and p ..
Image result for world 90percent population is breathing polluted air

and promote clean cooking fuel.

Today’s report was based on data collected from more than 3,000 sites across the globe.

It found that “92 percent of the world’s population lives in places where air quality levels exceed WHO limits”.

The data focuses on dangerous particulate matter with a diameter of less than 2.5 micrometres, or PM2.5.

PM2.5 includes toxins like sulfate and black carbon, which can penetrate deep into the lungs or cardiovascular ..

Image result for world 90percent population is breathing polluted air

Air with more than 10 microgrammes per cubic metre of PM2.5 on an annual average basis is considered substandard.

In some regions satellite data has been complemented by ground-level PM2.5 measurements, but in much of the developing world ground readings remain unavailable, forcing the WHO to rely on cruder estimates.

Despite these data gaps, Neira said the UN agency now had more information than ever about pollutants in the planet’s air.

Using both satellites .. and ground measurements “is a big step forward towards even more confident estimates of the huge global burden”, of dirty air, she added.

The WHO has estimated that more than six million deaths per year are linked to exposure to outdoor and indoor air pollution.

Data is more solid for outdoor pollution, which is blamed for more than three million fatalities annually.

But indoor pollution can be equally as harmful, especially in poorer developing world home .. where cooking often involves burning charcoal.

Nearly 90-percent of air pollution-related deaths occur in low and middle-income countries, the WHO said.

Southeast Asia and the Western Pacific region — including China, Malaysia and Vietnam — are the hardest hit, the data showed.

Using a different data set, the WHO reported in May that 80 per cent of the world’s city dwellers breathe poor quality air, a figure that rose to 98 per cent in poorer countries


NASA spots an ‘impossible’ ice cloud on Saturn’s moon Titan – for the second time

thanks: vancouer sun

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Saturn’s moon Titan has been called the most Earthlike world found to date. It’s the only other place in the solar system where stable liquid sits on the surface — seas of liquid methane flow into channels that have created magnificent canyons — and scientists have suggested that the icy world might be able to support some kind of alien life.

Now researchers think they can add yet another “Earthlike” quality to Titan’s extensive list: According to a study in Geophysical Research Letters, a seemingly impossible cloud on Titan may be created by weather processes we’ve seen before at home.

The unlikely cloud type was first spotted decades ago by NASA’s Voyager 1 spacecraft. It was made of a carbon- and nitrogen-based compound called dicyanoacetylene (C4N2). C4N2 is part of the chemical cocktail that cloaks Titan in an orange-coloured haze. But high up in the stratosphere where this particular cloud sat, the compound was scarce. Scientists could find just 1 per cent of the amount of C4N2 that should have been needed to create the cloud.

NASA’s Cassini mission recently spotted a second example of this crazy kind of cloud. When they used Cassini’s instruments to puzzle out the chemical composition of the ice cloud and its surroundings, scientists came up with the same impossible answer: The stratosphere-dwelling ice cloud is made of dicyanoacetylene, but the stratosphere is sorely lacking in that particular compound.

Clouds aren’t unusual on Titan — they form when methane cools and condenses, just as clouds made of water form on Earth. Things are a little different when they form in the stratosphere — at the moon’s poles, circulation patterns force warm gasses down until they sink, cool and condense — but in both cases, the clouds form when ice and vapour reach a state of equilibrium.

Image result for saturn clouds

In the case of these strange ice clouds on Titan, the amount of dicyanoacetylene vapour present in the area shouldn’t be enough to keep the ice trapped in the cloud in equilibrium.

“The appearance of this ice cloud goes against everything we know about the way clouds form on Titan,” lead study author Carrie Anderson of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center said in a statement.

The appearance of this ice cloud goes against everything we know about the way clouds form on Titan

But Anderson and her colleagues think they’ve found an answer – in the clouds that damage Earth’s ozone layer.

Earth has certain clouds that forego condensation altogether, forming instead through a kind of “solid-state” chemistry based on the interactions of ice particles. On Earth, these guys are bad news: Chlorine-based chemicals enter the air by way of pollution on the ground, then meet up with icy water crystals in the dry stratosphere. The chemical reactions that occur in these wispy clouds release chlorine molecules, which eat away at the ozone layer.

On Titan, a similar process could create the mysterious ice clouds: Anderson and her colleagues suggest that cyanoacetylene, a more common compound containing hydrogen, carbon and nitrogen, could become coated with hydrogen cyanide as it moved down the stratosphere in the form of icy crystals. If ultraviolet rays from the sun struck one of these dual-layer ice crystals, the resulting chemical reaction would release dicyanoacetylene and hydrogen. Voila, a cloud!

“The compositions of the polar stratospheres of Titan and Earth could not differ more,” Goddard’s Michael Flasar said in a statement. “It is amazing to see how well the underlying physics of both atmospheres has led to analogous cloud chemistry.”

The Cassini orbiter has been studying Saturn and its wonderful moons for over a decade, but the mission is coming to a close. The mission will end in September 2017, but first NASA is undertaking a “Grand Finale” in April. Cassini will dive into the space between Saturn and its rings – an area never before visited – 22 times.

On Sept. 15, 2017, Cassini will dive for the last time, plunging into Saturn’s atmosphere to send home unprecedented data on the planet’s composition.

“We may be counting down, but no one should count Cassini out yet,” Cassini program scientist Curt Niebur said in a statement. “The journey ahead is going to be a truly thrilling ride.”

Image result for saturn clouds

First Historic Robotic eye surgery

thanks: Times of India

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai


Image result for eye surgery by robotic


LONDON: British surgeons have carried out the world’s first robotic operation inside the eye -potentially revolutionising the way vision conditions are treated. Patient Father WilliamBeaver, 70, an associate priest at St Mary the Virgin Church in Oxford, said his eyesight was returning following the procedure, having previously experienced distorted vision similar to “looking in a hall of mirrors at a fairground”.

Image result for eye surgery by robotic

The procedure was carried out by surgeons at Oxford‘s John Radcliffe Hospital. Therobotic eye surgery trial involves 12 patients undergoing operations with increasing complexity .

Image result for eye surgery by robotic

Latest Comment

The robotic surgery is revolutionary. However, more number of surgeries are required to be proved and the cost affectivenes is a factor which might come in its way. N.R.P. RaoNippani Rama

On completing the operation, Professor Robert MacLaren said: “We have just witnessed a vision of eye surgery in the future. Current technologywith laser scanners and microscopes allows us to monitor retinal diseases at the microscopic level, but the things we see are beyond the physiological limit of what the human hand can operate on. With a robotic system , we open up a whole new chapter of eye operations that currently cannot be performed.”

Image result for eye surgery by robotic

It was the first time a device had been available that achieved the three-dimensional precision required to operate inside the human eye.



Mariyappan’s Paralympics gold: A journey defying all odds

thanks to Times of India


India’s gold medal winner at the 2016 Paralympics Games, Mariyappan Thangaveluwas only five years old when his right knee was crushed in a bus accident. His journey from the day that left him permanently disabled to becoming only the third Indian paralympian to win a gold medal, has been nothing less than inspiring. Even today, when Mariyappan has helped India jump within the top 30 places in the medals tally, the family continues to be involved in a legal tussle against the state-owned transport corporation.

That Mariyappan has come this far owes a lot to his mother and coach. After his father abandoned the family, he and his mother Saroja had to endure a tough life financially. Saroja has been offering domestic help for years and her livelihood banks on selling vegetables. Yet, she ensured that Mariyappan’s initial love towards sports – he used to play volleyball earlier – developed into something special.

Following Mariyappan’s medal-winning performance, the family, living in the Periyavadagampatti village in Salem district of Tamil Nadu, celebrated by bursting crackers and distributing sweets. “I sincerely thank each and every one who is supporting my boy,” said Saroja, the mother of four children who earns Rs 75 to Rs 100 on a day, after Mariyappan’s medal-winning performance.

Winning is not new to Mariyappan. In his first competitive event against able-bodied athletes aged 14, he emerged second. Satyanarayana, his coach, was quick to spot him at the National Para-Athletics Championship when he was just 18. This was in the year 2013.


 Image result for mariappan thangavelu

Undergoing intense training session in Bengaluru, he became the World No. 1 in 2015 in his first year of senior-level competition. The athlete also bagged a gold medal at the IPC Tunisia Grand Prix when he jumped his personal best of 1.78m which was enough for him to book a berth at the Paralympics. The same year, he also completed his Bachelors in business administration and has been hunting for a job since.


 Image result for mariappan thangavelu

Mariyappan’s feat has been lauded by Indian Prime Minister Narendra Modi, Sports Minister Vijay Goel and former Olympic gold medallist Abhinav Bindra. The list though, doesn’t end there. Tamil Nadu’s district sports officer, Periya Aruppan, congratulated Mariyappan and Satyanarayana over the phone in this morning and ensured he will provide him with all sorts of help.

Top Comment

People like this should be encouraged.. lets the what the govt will do for him. will they do like what they did for sindhu and sakshi. What do u think?? INspiRing….Pavan Kumar


Later in the day, the Tamil Nadu government announced a cash reward of Rs 2 crore for Mariyappan. TN Chief Minister Jayalalithaa had this to say regarding the performance: “I was delighted to learn that Mariyappan has won Gold Medal in Paralympics currently being held in Rio De Janeiro, Brazil.”


double eclipse captured by Nasa= Kavignar Thaniga.

NASA’S Solar Dynamics Observatory captured the stunning double eclipse. It was also visible in parts of southern and central Africa.

The space agency said early Friday morning Earth completely eclipsed the sun from the satellite’s perspective just as the moon began its journey across the face of the sun.

Observers can tell the Earth and the moon apart by their edges: Earth’s is fuzzy, while the moon’s is sharp and distinct.

The video clip relased by NASA lasts 34 seconds.


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unequal state with more population: India. – kavignar thanigai.

Representative image


India Second Most ‘Unequal’ Country After Russia: Report


New Delhi: India is the second most “unequal” country in the world after Russia, with millionaires controlling more than half of its total wealth, a report by Johannesburg-based wealth research firm New World Wealth said earlier this week.

In India, 54 per cent of its wealth is controlled by millionaires. While India is among the 10 richest countries in the world with a total individual wealth of $5,600 billion, the average Indian is quite poor, the report said.

“The higher the proportion the more unequal the country is. For instance, if millionaires control over 50 per cent of a country’s wealth, then there is very little space for a meaningful middle class,” the report said.

Worldwide, Russia is the most unequal country where millionaires control over 62 per cent of the nation’s total wealth.

Instead, Japan showed up as the most equal country, with millionaires controlling only 22 per cent of total wealth.

The report also found the US to be “surprisingly” equal, with millionaires controlling around 32 per cent of the nation’s total wealth.

“This is surprising low considering all the negative press that the US gets in terms of income inequality,” it added.

Britain was found to be slightly less equal than the US, with its millionaires controlling around 35 per cent of the total wealth there.

Russia also tops the list of a country’s wealth held by billionaires (with net assets of $1 billion or more) with 26 per cent of the total Russian wealth held by this category of high net worth individuals.

Japan again is the most equal in this category, with billionaires controlling only three per cent of the total wealth of the country.

thanks to news 18

dedicated by: kavignar Thanigai.


Singur case: Mamata wins, Tata image dented but will farmers be the biggest losers?


The much-awaited and discussed Singur land case has been settled with the Supreme Court on Wednesday asking the state government to return 400 acres to farmers, who are the original owners, in 12 weeks’ time. The verdict comes as a moral victory for chief minister Mamata Banerjee and a big jolt for the Tata group, for whom the land was acquired by then the Left government in 2006 for the highly ambitious small-car project, the Nano. However, the biggest losers are likely to be the farmers who were the real heroes of the agitation and remained loyal to their cause.

Mamata Banerjee in a PTI file photo

Mamata Banerjee in a PTI file photo

It was the Singur land agitation that had propelled Mamatainto the political dominance in West Bengal. The agitation against the land acquisition by the Buddhadeb Bhattacharjee-led Left government started with a few farmers expressing their unwillingness to part with their cultivable land for the industrial project. Mamata, who was then cashing in on every opportunity to create her own space in the Left-dominated political space of West Bengal, seized the chance to lead the agitation.

At a rally, she breathed fire challenging the government to acquire even an inch of land “without creating a river of blood“. “Let them deploy a million-strong police force, there will be no retreat,” she vowed.

The Left front government was projecting the deal with Tata Motors as its big victory. It was a key milestone that would have helped the Left, which had been ruling the state since 1977, ward off its industry-unfriendly image. As this articlein The Economist in 2008 says, “The West Bengal government wanted the Nano plant both for the jobs it would bring and the message it would send.”

But after the two-year-long agitation by farmers, lead by Mamata and strongly backed by many eminent activists and writers such as Mahashweta Devi, Aprna Sen and Medha Patkar, the Tata group was forced to pull out of the state and relocate the plant lock, stock and barrel to Sanand in Gujarat. The decision in one stroke resulted in the rise of two stars – then Gujarat chief minister Narendra Modi as an industry-friendly politician and Mamata as a politician for the farmer and the farm land, an image until remained the monopoly of the Left.

Around 2200 farmers were ‘unwilling’ to part with their land. They owned about 400 acres, as per the claim of Mamata (the government then said only 181 acres fell in the unwilling category).  Soon after Mamata became the chief minister riding high on the wave of this and other agitation against industrial use of agricultural land, she enacted a law wresting the land from the Tatas. The company contested the claim.

After 10 years, when the Supreme Court has given its verdict on the land vindicating Mamata’s stance, there is an irony that is hard to escape.

Mamata, as chief minister of West Bengal now, is leaving no stone unturned to change her industry-unfriendly image. She is desperately taking steps to attract investments and industry into the state. Investor summits have become a regular yearly event. In fact, in an interview to The Economic Times on Tuesday (30 August 2016), state finance minister Amit Mitra claimed that under Mamata Bengal is again becoming a favourite investment address.

But now that the final verdict in the land case has come here is a stock-taking to see who actually won and who lost:

For Mamata it is indeed a win: She fought for it and though with a 10-year delay, she has won. An elated Mamata said at a rally after the verdict: Now I can die in piece. According to reports, the government plans observe 2 September as Singur Day. The celebrations have only begun.

Huge loss for Tatas: And this is not just monetary. The group will indeed suffer a loss of face too because the apex court has also said that it had bypassed the rules while acquiring the land. Monetarily, according to the Tata Motors’ annual report for 2015-16, capital work-in-progress as of 31 March 2014, including building under construction at Singur, was Rs 309.88 crore. The management has in 2014-15 made a provision for carrying capital cost of buildings at Singur amounting to Rs 309.88 crore. So this amount has been provided for.

However, in a petition in the Calcutta High Court, in 2011, the company had claimed that the losses would amount o Rs 1,400 crore. “The petitioners’ losses are around Rs 1,400 crore which includes the investment on the ground which is sought to be taken over by the government and various costs and losses such as, value of land rights and goodwill, transportation, mothballing the entire plant which needed about more than 3,300 large trucks to carry the materials, the rehabilitation and resettlement of various, vendors, cost of retaining the land till date and the security thereof as compensation,” this report in The Telegraph quotes from Tata Motors’ petition in the high court.

This apart, Ratan Tata, then chairman and now chairman emeritus of Tata Sons, said in 2014 that shifting the plant from Singur was a prudent move in hindsight but gave the group a high negative cost. “When we created the Nano, there was a lot of global excitement that a car could be offered at a price of $2,500 and three lakh orders with a waiting period of two years was induced. But it took another year because of the shift and there was a general disbelief generated about the car, while competitors got a chance to start bad—mouthing the Nano. By that time, much of the excitement was lost,” he said at a function in Kolkata.

After 10 long years, the Nano car continues to be a failure. Some of the brand experts even suggested that it should be killed. Tata himself regretted the cheap-car tag that eventually resulted in its downfall. For the group, the whole effort seems to be a waste of time and energy.

Death knell for the Left Front: As this article points out in The Hindu BusinessLine points out, the verdict could well be the proverbial last nail. As such the front has already been struggling to come to terms with the new political realities of cast and capital. The verdict that indicts the Left government is  likely to shatter the front, particularly the CPI(M), at least in West Bengal. Interestingly, it has come at a time when the Left Front in Kerala led by the CPI(M) is now making all bids to attract industry and investments. One thing to watch out for will be whether the verdict will have any impact on Kerala chief minister Pinarayi Vijayan’s industry outlook.

Farmers could be the biggest losers: The simple reason is that they may have lost their land almost permanently despite the court order to return it. This is because the company had started construction of the plant in 2007. Media reports indicate that the construction that has taken place may have already rendered the land uncultivable for a long period of time. As Joydeb Das, a farmer who was part of the agitation, says in this Business Standard report, “Can I till the land if I get it back? It’s filled with fly ash. It will take five years to make it suitable for agriculture. That is possible only if the state compensates me for the loss.”

To be fair, the Mamata government has been doling out incentives for the farmers who stood with her during the agitation. But now that the verdict is out, will the state government continue the doles? If not, how are these farmers going to survive?

Moreover, there are bigger practical issues with distributing the land. The reason is that the government is not going to give back the entire land. It will only return 400 acres, while 600 acres will be used for industry. As this report in the Business Standard says, this “leads to the obvious conclusion that many of the 2,000 ‘unwilling’ land losers would not get back their land; they could either get back less valuable land or land belonging to ‘willing’ land losers”.

In short, while Mamata will celebrate her victory and the Tatas and Left lick their wounds, the real losers could turn out to be the farmers who refused to part with their fertile land for industrial use.

With inputs from Kishor Kadam