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Dead remains of oldest solar system in the Milky Way galaxy discovered

thanks : India Today

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai

This solar system has two suns and the debris of a world with a similar composition to the Earth’s continental crust.

In Short

  • Astronomers identified the oldest star in our galaxy
  • The fate of most stars, including those like our Sun, is to become a white dwarf
  • The team used spectroscopic and photometric data from GAIA

By India Today Web Desk: The universe has been over 13.7 billion years old and has seen several planetary systems born, grow old and die. Astronomers on Earth have for the first time discovered the remains of the oldest solar system in the Milky Way galaxy. The debris of the planetary system is just 90 light-years from Earth.

Astronomers identified the oldest star in our galaxy that is accreting debris from orbiting planetesimals, making it one of the oldest rocky and icy planetary systems discovered in our galaxy. This planetary system orbited a faint white dwarf star and the remains of the solar system discovered are at least 10 billion years old.

A white dwarf is a star that has burnt up all of its fuel and shed its outer layers and is now undergoing a process of shrinking and cooling. The fate of most stars, including those like our Sun, is to become a white dwarf and scientists have said that when a star loses its end of life any orbiting planets will be disrupted and, in some cases, destroyed.

The details of the findings have been published in the Monthly Notices of the Royal Astronomical Society. The team of astronomers modelled two unusual white dwarfs that were detected by the space observatory GAIA of the European Space Agency. Both the stars are polluted by planetary debris.

While one of them was spotted to be blue the other is the faintest and reddest found to date in the local galactic neighbourhood.

When these old stars formed more than 10 billion years ago, the universe was less metal-rich than it is now since metals are formed in evolved stars and gigantic stellar explosions. The two observed white dwarfs provide an exciting window into planetary formation in a metal-poor and gas-rich environment that was different to the conditions when the solar system was formed,” Professor Pier-Emmanuel Tremblay of the Department of Physics at the University of Warwick, said in a statement.

he team used spectroscopic and photometric data from GAIA, the Dark Energy Survey, and the X-Shooter instrument at the European Southern Observatory to analyse how long it has been cooling. The star named WDJ2147-4035 is around 10.7 billion years old, of which 10.2 billion years have been spent cooling as a white dwarf.

The second ‘blue’ star WDJ1922+0233 is only slightly younger than WDJ2147-4035 and was polluted by planetary debris of a similar composition to the Earth’s continental crust.

“We’re finding the oldest stellar remnants in the Milky Way that are polluted by once Earth-like planets. It’s amazing to think that this happened on the scale of ten billion years and that those planets died way before the Earth was even formed.” Lead author Abbigail Elms, a Ph.D. student at the University of Warwick said.


thanks: mashable India october 11.2022

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Our universe is teeming with galaxies, stars, exoplanets, and other wonders. Nebulae have a varied fan base when it comes to some eye-catching structures in space. Various types of Nebulas have been discovered to far; some are eerie, while others are just mind-boggling.

We’ll discuss about one such Nebula, which is 7,100 light years away from us and looks like a bubble; oddly, the name of this Nebula is ‘Bubble Nebula.’ Let’s find out what makes this Nebula so special.This image was captured by the legendary Hubble Telescope. This formation is seen in the constellation Cassiopeia. According to NASA, the spectacular picture of the cosmic bubble wrap is around 4 million years old and will turn into a supernova in 10-20 million years.

Even though it seems weak, the 7-light-year-diameter bubble shows signs of violent processes at work. Above and to the left of the bubble’s centre is a blazing, O-type star, about 45 times as massive as the Sun and several hundred thousand times brighter.

This nebula is captured in visible light by NASA’s Hubble Wide Field Camera-3, displaying its magnificent colours of green for hydrogen, blue for oxygen, and red for nitrogen.

‘Time Traveller’ Predicts Aliens Will Land On Earth On December 8 This Year

The presence of aliens has been a widely debated topic. Some questions like whether they exist or not, whether they are watching us, are they on earth have been on all of our minds. According to one self-proclaimed ‘time traveller,’ aliens will land on earth on December 8.

Time traveller predicts aliens will land on earth on December 8

Tik-tok Screengrab © Provided by Indiatimes Tik-tok Screengrab

TikTok user Eno Alaric, who is also a self-proclaimed ‘time traveller,’ posted a video with the caption: “Attention! Yes, I am a real-time traveller from the year 2671, remember these five dates to come.”  

The self-proclaimed time traveller shared five predictions on the social media platform. The most attention-grabbing one said that humans could interact with aliens in December this year. According to him, aliens may land on the earth in a giant meteor on December 8. He also predicted that the west coast of the US would be faced with a 750ft mega-tsunami in March 2023. The man claims to be from the year 2671. 

His other predictions

Unsplash © Provided by Indiatimes Unsplash

In addition to this alien landing, Alaric also predicted many other things. He also speculated four other events that supposedly take place in the next six months, the first of which is likely to take place on November 30. He stated that on that day, a new planet that imitates the earth would be discovered by the James Webb Telescope. After that, the alien interaction will happen on December 8. 

The third event would take place on February 6, 2023, where a group of teenagers will discover a device to open a wormhole to other galaxies. In the month of March next year, Alaric predicts the discovery of an ancient species in the Mariana Trench. His last prophecy stated that residents of the US’s west coast, especially San Francisco, would be hit by a 750ft mega-tsunami



 first planetary defence test

thanks:Indian Express oct.02. 2022 Mahathma 153rd Birth day

Space news weekly recap: DART crash, Artemis 1 postponed and more

From NASA’s successful DART mission to plans for taking the Hubble Space Telescope to a higher orbit, here is our weekly space news recap.

ast week, NASA successfully crashed the DART (Double Asteroid Redirection Test) spacecraft into the asteroid Dimorphos in what is humanity’s first planetary defence test. Elsewhere, the SLS rocket and Orion spacecraft had to be rolled back into the space agency’s Vehicle Assembly Building to protect the stack from the effects of Hurricane Ian. Read about all that and more in our weekly recap of space news.

DART collision with Dimorphos

NASA’s DART spacecraft successfully completed its planned collision with the asteroid Dimorphos at 4.44 AM IST on September 27. Dimorph orbits Didymos, a larger asteroid and the collision should have changed the smaller asteroid’s orbit of the larger one. Telescopes on our planet and in space are taking measurements of this change to see how the change compares to the one in computer-generated simulations.

ALSO READ |NASA’s Double Asteroid Redirection Test successful: DART crashes into Dimorphos

After studying the change in the orbit and the results of the collision, scientists will ascertain whether this “kinetic impact” method of asteroid mitigation would be viable if an actual asteroid were to threaten our planet.

Artemis 1 launch unlikely before mid-November

NASA moved its Artemis 1 mission’s SLS (Space Launch System) rocket and Orion spacecraft back to the Vehicle Assembly building as Hurrican Ian was approaching Florida. Instead of trying to launch the rocket during the September 27 launch window, NASA decided to send the stack on the 6.4-kilometre trip back to the assembly building.

AP reports NASA official Jim Free as having said that it would be difficult to upgrade the rocket and get it back on the launch pad for an October launch attempt. Free reportedly noted that this would make it hard to attempt during the mid-to-late October launch period. The next launch window after opens on November 12.NASA SpaceX Crew 5 dragon spaceraft SpaceX’s Dragon Endurance spacecraft arriving at the hangar at Kennedy Space Center’s Launch Complex 39A for NASA’s Crew-5 mission to the International Space Station. (Image credit: NASA/SpaceX)

NASA, SpaceX Crew 5 launch postponed

Artemis 1’s launch date was not the only casualty caused by Hurricane Ian. NASA and SpaceX decided to postpone the launch of the Crew-5 mission to the International Space Station to no earlier than 12.23 PM EDT (9.53 PM) on Tuesday, October 4. It was initially scheduled to launch on October 3. Also, NASA and SpaceX maintaining a backup launch opportunity on Wednesday, October 5.

The Crew-5 mission will carry NASA astronauts Nicole Mann and Josh Cassada, along with Japan Aerospace Exploration Agency (JAXA) astronaut Koichi Wakata and Roscosmos cosmonaut Anna Kikina. Apart from the personnel, the mission will also be carrying many important science missions.

Boosting Hubble’s orbit

Reuters reports that Elon Musk’s SpaceX plans to fund a study which will examine whether and how the private space company’s Dragon capsule can be used to raise the Hubble Space Telescope’s orbital altitude. This is aimed at extending its useful life. NASA said teams will collect data to “help determine whether it would be possible to safely rendezvous, dock, and move the telescope into a more stable orbit.”

Also Read |NASA, SpaceX to study ways to boost orbit of Hubble telescope

The Hubble Space Telescope has been delivering important imagery and science data for astronomers since its launch in 1990. Hubble was reportedly serviced several times in the early 2000s during the US Space Shuttle program. The program was retired in 2011 and astronomers have considered various ways to service the telescope. No plans have been developed yet.

© IE Online Media Services Pvt Ltd

dedicated by


Seeing Mars like never before

thanks: The Hindu

On September 11, 1997, Mars Global Surveyor arrived at Mars. In the years that followed, the robotic U.S. spacecraft carried long-term study from the Martian orbit to understand the surface of the red planet, its atmosphere and also aspects of its interior. A.S.Ganesh takes a look at a mission that will keep us busy for some time…

Nearly 20 years after the U.S. probes Viking 1 and Viking 2 successfully landed on Mars in 1976, America’s next successful mission to our neighbouring red planet began. The Mars Global Surveyor (MGS) spacecraft was launched in 1996 with the objective of orbiting Mars and collecting images using a number of instruments.

The MGS had been born out of a failure. When we looked at the Mars Observer, launched in 1992, in this column last month, we threw light on how NASA lost contact with it just days before its planned orbit insertion. While the failure definitely hurt, the fact that out-of-control costs nearly quadrupled the project price for Mars Observer stung them even further.

Faster, better, cheaper”

When it was time for MGS, NASA set about building a “faster, better, cheaper” set of spacecraft. The programme had successes and failures as they went about using smaller teams and less complicated components to construct low-cost spacecraft. The MGS was definitely a success.

Launched from the Kennedy Space Center aboard a Delta II rocket on November 7, 1996, MGS went into Earth orbit before firing its engines once more to accelerate towards Mars. A little over 10 months later, on September 11, 1997 (September 12, UTC), MGS successfully achieved orbit insertion around Mars.

Aerobraking technique

A pioneer in many ways, MGS utilised a new aerobraking technique to finalise its orbit around Mars. By pushing against the Martian atmosphere gradually through its first months at the red planet, MGS successfully put itself in its final orbit. While the method was devised to save on the cost of sending more fuel on board, the technique proved extremely successful and hence was put to use again by the Mars Reconnaissance Orbiter and Mars Odyssey missions.

One of the first targets for MGS was the “Face of Mars.” Snapped by Viking 1 in 1976, the picture looked like a human face gazing up at the sky, leading to many conspiracy theories. Even though NASA was already aware that the “face” was a trick of the shadows, MGS was made to pass over the same location as Viking 1 in April 1998. The high-resolution images that MGS came up with were enough to debunk many a conspiracy theory.

Wind plays its part

In the years that followed, MGS provided plenty of snapshots that showed a possible ancient river channel, extremely slow dunes, drifts and sand sheets on the Martian surface. Many of these features indicated that wind was a huge factor in shaping the history of Mars.

The MGS used a laser altimeter to map the Martian terrain; employed a magnetometer to detect traces of magnetic field; and mapped over 20 new impact craters during its operational time. Peering from its vantage point in orbit, MGS was even able to spot hematite, a mineral that forms in water.

Unexpected end

By the time MGS unexpectedly fell silent in November 2006, it had outlasted its design lifetime by over four times. Even though NASA tried to revive contact for weeks, it was without any success. An independent review concluded that the MGS team followed the correct steps, but they were inadequate, prompting the agency to overhaul procedures for future Mars missions.

Last contact with MGS might have been in 2006, but data provided by the spacecraft churned out further scientific results in the years that followed. As recently as 2016, NASA used in part data from MGS to provide an improved gravity map of the red planet. There might be more to come from all the data relayed by MGS as it accomplished all the objectives that it set out to achieve.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai

Carlos Alcaraz becomes youngest World No. 1 in men’s tennis 

Carlos Alcaraz becomes youngest World No. 1 in men’s tennis after maiden Grand Slam crown at US Open 2022

US Open: 19-year-old Carlos Alcaraz became the first teenager to be ranked No. 1 in ATP rankings history after he defeated Casper Ruud in 4 sets in the final in New York for his maiden Grand Slam title.


  • Alcaraz won his maiden Grand Slam title at US Open 2022
  • Alcaraz defeated Casper Ruud in 4 sets in the men’s singles final
  • Alcaraz also became the youngest man to win US Open crown since Sampras in 1990

Carlos Alcaraz showed glimpses of what promises to be a glittering career in tennis when he won the US Open crown as a 19-year-old on Sunday, September 11. The Spanish teenager defeated Casper Ruud in 4 sets in the final to cap off a stunning run with his maiden Grand Slam title in New York.

With the US Open triumph, Carlos Alcaraz became the youngest since Rafael Nadal in 2005 (French Open) to win a Grand Slam title and the youngest since Pete Sampras in 1990 to win a Grand Slam title in men’s tennis.

It was a double delight for Alcaraz as the Spaniard also became the new No.1 in men’s singles tennis. Alcaraz and Ruud not just battled for the US Open crown but also for the numero uno spot after it was confirmed that Daniil Medvedev would vacate the spot after failing to defend his US Open title. There was plenty at stake for the two young men in New York on Sunday but Alcaraz showcased composure beyond his years to achieve glory.

Alcaraz vs Ruud, US Open final Highlights

Alcaraz, playing only in his second full season on the tour, scripted history as he became the youngest World No. 1 in men’s singles tennis. Since the start of the ATP rankings (in August 1973), no teenager had become the numero uno. Before Alcaraz, Lleyton Hewitt was the youngest World No. 1 in 2001 at 20 years and 9 months.


four and five

Four planets – Jupiter, Venus, Mars, and Saturn – will align in a straight line forming a planetary quartet in the sky in a rare celestial event starting from today (17 April),

They will be in full alignment by 20 April and 23 April. 

Besides, the event will become even more spectacular with the moon joining the party.

People from all around the world will be able to experience this phenomenon with the naked eye and more clearly with a pair of binoculars.

To see the planetary quartet, skywatchers in the Northern Hemisphere should head outside about an hour before the sun comes up and gaze southeast, in the direction of the sunrise.

Looking east at a flat horizon, Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Saturn will appear “strung out in a line across the morning sky,” NBC News cited NASA in a recent report. 

If conditions are clear, all four planets will be bright enough to see with the naked eye, without the aid of binoculars or telescopes.

The same alignment is viewable before sunrise in the Southern Hemisphere.

In that region, the sun’s path in the sky is at a steeper angle to the horizon, compared to in the Northern Hemisphere, which means the string of planets will unfurl higher above the sunrise point.

In both cases, Jupiter will be the second-brightest planet in the celestial gathering but will appear lowest on the horizon, which could make it tricky to spot. That will change as the month goes on, according to NASA.

Also, NASA, in its monthly roundup of skywatching tips, said, “Heading into the last week of April, Jupiter will be high enough above the horizon in the hour before sunrise to make it more easily observed.”

Though this month’s skywatching event makes it look like the planets form a neat line in space, it’s actually just a matter of perspective. 

Each planet in the solar system circles the sun on the same flat plane, which means that as they occasionally swing past each other in their orbits, they appear to form a straight line in Earth’s skies. 

This tidy positioning, however, would look very different from any other vantage point in space.

The planets will be viewable in the predawn sky all month, and April’s alignment will set the stage for an even more spectacular skywatching event this summer.

Besides, from late June to early July, five planets – Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn – will be visible in the sky before sunrise in a major alignment that only occurs every few years.

Looking east at a flat horizon, Jupiter, Venus, Mars and Saturn will appear “strung out in a line across the morning sky,” NBC News cited NASA in a recent report. 

If conditions are clear, all four planets will be bright enough to see with the naked eye, without the aid of binoculars or telescopes.

The same alignment is viewable before sunrise in the Southern Hemisphere.

In that region, the sun’s path in the sky is at a steeper angle to the horizon, compared to in the Northern Hemisphere, which means the string of planets will unfurl higher above the sunrise point.

In both cases, Jupiter will be the second-brightest planet in the celestial gathering but will appear lowest on the horizon, which could make it tricky to spot. That will change as the month goes on, according to NASA.

Also, NASA, in its monthly roundup of skywatching tips, said, “Heading into the last week of April, Jupiter will be high enough above the horizon in the hour before sunrise to make it more easily observed.”

Though this month’s skywatching event makes it look like the planets form a neat line in space, it’s actually just a matter of perspective. 

Each planet in the solar system circles the sun on the same flat plane, which means that as they occasionally swing past each other in their orbits, they appear to form a straight line in Earth’s skies. 

This tidy positioning, however, would look very different from any other vantage point in space.

The planets will be viewable in the predawn sky all month, and April’s alignment will set the stage for an even more spectacular skywatching event this summer.

Besides, from late June to early July, five planets – Mercury, Venus, Mars, Jupiter and Saturn – will be visible in the sky before sunrise in a major alignment that only occurs every few years.


the business standard

By Kavignar Thanigai.

BEWARE:windzoid courier service Elpaso 1830 E Mills Avenue TX USA: kavignar Thanigai.

Listen Carefully: It is not WinZo game app company KKR IPL Team players wearing T shirts while playing IPL Cricket in 2022 and Rummy game app. But this name might be fabricated from this name with imagination .It is completely Fake and Cheating company fully fabricated lie about its location mentioned in its website namely Windzoid courier service 1830 E Mills Avenue El paso TX (Texas) 79901, USA. 230 projects done,80 clients world wide 147 vehicles owned and 130 people in Team

This company is not revealing about its Head office/HQR and its Registered office clearly,even though we asked about it.But simply telling its Head office is at USA

Josef u. Ute Ullrich with the E mail: josef-ullrich@t-online.de first contacted the job searching Youths to send the resume.

If a person sending his resume, after that immediately Wilson Ellis Barry Human Resources Manager Windzoid service 1830 E Mills Avenue El paso, TX 79901, USA Tel:+14099001200 Fax:+114099001200 emails: wilson, ellis barry@windzoid.com, careers@windzoid.com ; info@windzoid.com sending a questionnaire ,instead of not conducting online interview, due to differ of continent,questionnaire is very sincere giving no chance of any doubt .

After Answering and sending that scanned copy, they are asking Passport, AAdhar, Qualification Certificates etc that too with scanned copies along with white back round 4 photos etc .

Then sending appointment letter with so many points nearly comes round about 15points, with rules and regulations like real company, and asked to send the candidate with signature scanned. For example This Youth Received with huge salary and to be joined with in 2 weeks mentioned a particular date.

After that game starts: Wilson ellis barry directed Hon.Ms.Gloria Berbena name visa processing unit, visa application Center. New Delhi with mobile/whats app+918527465742 along with Visa Application Center- India, Baba Kharak Singh Road, Connaught Place, New Delhi, Delhi 110 001 e mail : travel@mea-gov.org

They are giving Visa application no: AA00ARLPSJ like that.

Hon.Ms.Gloria Berbena also contacted by mail, Whatsapp text and phone call genuinely then She told to remit Rs. 14440/190 USD$ for the visa process. She is giving the following contact: to deposit the money.


ACCOUNT NUMBER 14540100125045




After remitting and Showing the Receipt very next day Ms.Gloria Berbena asking about that your verification of visa process is going very successfully you send covid vaccination certificate and Travel insurance certificate. The next process will be Visa formality to take bio metric interviews.

Wilson Ellis barry also urged to quickly finish the visa process, And Ms.Gloria Berbena (if we searched with internet Gloria Berbena photos and name will be taken place in USA officiate list) in the name this scam is going on.

So, Ms.Gloria Berbena also asking the candidate to update quickly…

First she told in the same account to be remitted 1200 USD$ i.e INR:89,700 then she told it is mistake , for the amount now send to the following account:


A/C NO:99980106925014

IFSC; FDRL0001334



after analyzing all we contacted Chennai US Embassy to India , they are responding it is candidate’s own cost to make it, and Federal bank advised to go cyber cell.

In the meantime our Wilson Ellis Barry threatens the candidate why there is late, 100 candidates we selected you only makes delay, if we ask where is your Head office?

He is telling and bluffing it is available with that appointment letter, But it is not there, and he is managing and telling it is in Los Angeles California….his voice is arrogant and if you are not remitting with in 30 minutes we will cancel the appointment. working place is 1830 El paso only,and added the company will give all expenses after reaching there. After getting Visa, You send copy of it, then only we will send Air Ticket,even company can afford re location charges, Travel air ticket to wife and children under 18 yrs etc.But visa process and travel insurance certificate copy expenses you have to bear now not company will sponsor.After reaching there only it will give.

Ms.Gloriya berbena asked to remit quickly, US insurance Service form they sent, for 1200 US$, She is telling no other international insurance company remittances will be accepted. with in 4 hours they will issue certificate.

But we searched the US insuranc companies this US insurance Service name is not there

Then CARE insurance is telling approximately 2700 to 4500 Rupees is enough to go while travel insurance they will provide with in one hour they will give the US Travel insurance certificate.

Ms.Gloria Berbena is not clearly known about what is the meaning of Value of Sum Assured in insurance.But CARE insurance company telling rightly.

So what we want to concluding here:CONCLUSION

One Network in the name of Windzoid courier service is rendering/ cheating/ playing game and looting the youths, in the name of providing Jobs and Employment opportunities in abroad ESPECIALLY IN US and utilizing unemployment problem in India.BEWARE of it.with the name of Ms.Gloria Berbena they are playing game.

Most probably their base is in Bangalore. somebody may hide with this visible names.

with honest


p.s: for our search Ms.Gloria Berbena is now one among officiate of public affairs US officer to India

key officers of list:Counselor for Public Affairs – Gloria Berbena name is available

US Embassy & Consulates in India.

Embassy New Delhi:
Shantipath, Chanakyapuri
New Delhi – 110021
Phone: 011-91-11-2419-8000
Fax: 011-91-11-2419-0017

50 years back

BAS scientist awarded Gold Medal by Royal Astronomical Society

thanks to Miracle latest

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

BAS scientist awarded Gold Medal by Royal Astronomical SocietyBAS scientist awarded Gold Medal by Royal Astronomical Society

The Royal Astronomical Society has awarded the 2022 Gold Medal for Geophysics to Professor Richard B Horne for his outstanding contributions to our understanding of the physics underlying space weather. The announcement was made at the Ordinary Meeting of the Society held today (14 January 2022).

The Gold Medal is the society’s highest honour, which can be awarded for any reason but usually recognises lifetime achievement. Past winners include Albert Einstein, Edwin Hubble, Arthur Eddington and Stephen Hawking. It was first awarded in 1824; since 1964 two have been awarded each year – one for astronomy and one for geophysics.

Some of Professor Horne’s most notable achievements include his discovery that electromagnetic waves in planetary magnetospheres are responsible for accelerating charged particles to relativistic energies and velocities close to the speed of light. This science underlies British Antarctic Survey’s (BAS) Radiation Belt Model. As Head of Space Weather and Atmosphere Team at BAS, he has shown international leadership in firstly developing space weather science and then leading the European projects SPACECAST (2011-14) and SPACESTORM (2014-2017) to help protect satellites from the impact of space weather events.

The Earth's electron radiation belts. Professor Richard Horne was awarded a Gold Medal in Geophysics
Schematic diagram of the Earth’s Van Allen radiation belts (Credit: NOAA)

Professor Emma Bunce, President of the Royal Astronomical Society, comments on this year’s award. She says:

“I’m delighted that through our awards and medals we continue to recognise the weather of talent in the fields of astronomy, geophysics and space science. Our award winners continue to inspire us year after year by uncovering the mysteries of the Universe and the world around us, and encouraging others to do the same. My congratulations to all the winners of our 2022 awards!”

In response Professor Horne says:

“I am delighted to have been awarded the 2022 Gold Medal for Geophysics – it is such an honour to be recognised among such an eminent list of scientists.”

In a first, NASA’s Parker Solar Probe ‘touches’ the Sun’s corona in daring mission [Details]

For the first time ever, a spacecraft has touched the Sun. NASAs Parker Solar Probe has now flown through the Suns upper atmosphere, called the corona, and sampled particles and magnetic fields there, according to statement issued by the US space agency

NASA Enters the Solar Atmosphere for the First Time | NASA
Mars Panoramic View Captured by NASAs Curiosity Rover Exploring Mount Sharp
Mars Panoramic View Captured by NASA’s Curiosity Rover Exploring Mount Sharp

For the first time ever, a spacecraft has touched the Sun. NASAs Parker Solar Probe has now flown through the Suns upper atmosphere, called the corona, and sampled particles and magnetic fields there, according to statement issued by the US space agency.

The new milestone marks one major step for Parker Solar Probe and one giant leap for solar science. Just as landing on the Moon allowed scientists to understand how it was formed, touching the very stuff the Sun is made of will help scientists uncover critical information about our closest star and its influence on the solar system, the statement said.

Parker Solar Probe
Johns Hopkins University Applied Physics Laboratory

“Parker Solar Probe ‘touching the Sun’ is a monumental moment for solar science and a truly remarkable feat,” said Thomas Zurbuchen, the associate administrator for the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington.

“Not only does this milestone provide us with deeper insights into our Sun’s evolution and it’s impacts on our solar system, but everything we learn about our own star also teaches us more about stars in the rest of the universe.”

NASA said Parker is making new discoveries that other spacecraft were too far away to see. These include the flow of particles from the Sun that can influence us at Earth.

Early Solar System
The Circumsolar Disk. This is what the early Sun and its swirling clouds of gas and dust must’ve looked like.NASA

During the flyby, Parker Solar Probe passed into and out of the corona several times. This has proved that the Alfven critical surface isn’t shaped like a smooth ball. Rather, it has spikes and valleys that wrinkle the surface. Discovering where these protrusions line up with solar activity coming from the surface can help scientists learn how events on the Sun affect the atmosphere and solar wind, NASA said.

Parker Solar Probe was launched in 2018 to explore the mysteries of the Sun by traveling closer to it than any spacecraft before. Three years after launch, Parker has finally achieved its daring mission.

Unlike Earth, the Sun doesn’t have a solid surface. But it does have a superheated atmosphere, made of solar material bound to the Sun by gravity and magnetic forces. As rising heat and pressure push that material away from the Sun, it reaches a point where gravity and magnetic fields are too weak to contain it, according to the NASA statement.

dedicated by:

Kavignar Thanigai.

Miracles beyond human limits:NASA

What a shot! NASA’s Perseverance Rover records Ingenuity Mars Helicopter’s complicated flight — watch video

By: Bulbul Dhawan | November 20, 2021 6:27 PM

Perseverance Rover’s Mastcam-Z having two cameras recorded two clips of the helicopter’s Flight 13.

NASA Ingenuity Mars Helicopter: NASA’s Perseverance Mars Rover has made a video of the 13th flight of the Ingenuity Mars Helicopter sent by the agency. But what is unique about that? Well, this video of the flight gives the most detailed look so far of the helicopter in motion. The flight had taken place over two months ago on September 4, and now, the helicopter is scheduled to take its 16th flight, either on Saturday or later than that. However, there was something unique about the 13th flight of the Ingenuity Helicopter. The flight had lasted for a duration of 160.5 seconds, or 2 minutes and 40.5 seconds and it was among the most complicated ones for the rotorcraft. The flight attained the maximum height of 8 metres or 26 feet.

Perseverance Rover’s Mastcam-Z having two cameras recorded two clips of the helicopter’s Flight 13. The first one showed the majority of the profile of Ingenuity, while the second focused closely on the takeoff and landing of the rotorcraft. The second clip was captured as per the science observation which aims to help scientists measure the amount of dust plumes that the helicopter generates.RELATED NEWS

What’s even more impressive is the fact that Perseverance Rover captured the takeoff and landing with such detail even when it was 300 metres or 328 yards away from the site of the flight. This was captured using the ‘right eye’ of the Mastcam-Z, the US space agency said, while the ‘left eye’ captured the wide view of the flight in which the helicopter was merely a speck, giving an idea about the expansive region that the helicopter is aiming to explore.

A small dust plume was kicked off by Ingenuity when it took off, and then once it attained its maximum height, it performed a small pirouette so that it could line up its colour camera to scout the area. The helicopter can then be seen moving horizontally and going off screen, and then coming back in the view of the camera and landing close to where it initially took off. The landing spot was about 39 feet or 12 metres from where it had taken off. The right camera shows Ingenuity in a closer manner, while the wide view barely shows the helicopter, focusing more on the span of the Martian surface.

During its flight out of the view of Perseverance’s camera, Ingenuity collected as many as 10 images of the rocky surface of the red planet.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai

Indian astronomers discover stars hotter than Sun

Indian astronomers discover stars hotter than Sun

WION Web TeamNew Delhi Published: Nov 20, 2021, 10:34 PM(IST)

The Sun is not the hottest thing there is in our universe Photograph:( AFP )FOLLOW US


The rare stars were found by the astronomers using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) located near Pune

Sun is hot, really hot. The surface of the sun is burning at more than 5000 degrees Celsius. At the core, it is even hotter. But group of Indian astronomers have now found stars that are hotter than the Sun.

These stars, eight in all, belong to a rare class called ‘MRPs’ or Main-sequence Radio Pulse emitters. The Pune-based astronomers have discovered the stars by using Giant Metrewave Radio Telescope (GMRT) located near Pune.

The group of scientists, led by astronomers from the Pune-based National Centre for Radio Astrophysics (NCRA), discovered the rare class of radio stars that are hotter than the Sun with unusually strong magnetic fields and much stronger stellar wind, it said. In a press release, the NCRA said the team had also discovered three more such stars in the past using the GMRT. Thus, of the total 15 MRPs known so far, 11 were discovered with the GMRT, of which eight were discovered in 2021 alone, thanks to the wide bandwidth and high sensitivity of the upgraded GMRT, the release said. “These discoveries are the fruits of an ongoing survey with the GMRT, which was launched specifically for the purpose of solving the mystery of MRPs,” it said. 

Also Read | NASA shares Perseverance rover’s breathtaking recording of Ingenuity flight on Mars

The success of the GMRT programme has revolutionised the notion about this class of stars, and has opened up a new window to study their exotic magnetospheres, the NCRA said. 

The MRPs are stars hotter than the Sun with unusually strong magnetic fields, and much stronger stellar wind. Due to this, they emit bright radio pulses like a lighthouse, the research outfit said. Though the first MRP was discovered in 2000, it was only due to the high sensitivity of the upgraded GMRT (uGMRT) that the number of such stars known have increased multiple times in recent years, with 11 of the 15 discovered using the high-tech telescope, the NCRA said. 

Also Read | NASA says International Space Station is still at risk from debris of Russian weapons test

The success of the survey with the uGMRT suggest that the current notion that MRPs are rare objects may not be correct. Rather, they are probably more common, but are difficult to detect, it said. This is due to the fact that the radio pulses are visible only at certain times, and the phenomenon is mostly observable at low radio frequencies, the release said. 

“This is the frequency range where the uGMRT stands out as the most sensitive telescope in the world. The high sensitivity of the uGMRT and its ability to make high resolution images were instrumental in enabling the recovery of the pulsed signal from the different types of radiation coming from the sky. 

“This, combined with a strategic observation campaign, allowed the astronomers to overcome the difficulties, and reveal the true nature of these objects,” the release said.

(With inputs from agencies)

dedicated by:

Kavignar Thanigai.


thanks: Hindustan Times

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

China rapidly expanding its nuclear arsenal; intends to ‘produce over 1,000 warheads by 2030’: Pentagon

Nuclear weapons: Explained in numbers - BBC News
  • The report also said that China is heavily investing in and expanding the number of its land, sea and air-base nuclear delivery platforms and constructing the infrastructure necessary to support the expansion.

This comes in the backdrop of rising tension between the United States and China over Taiwan, where it had flown a record number of military flights, sparking concerns of a potential conflict.(AP Photo)Updated on Nov 04, 2021 09:50 AM

The People’s Republic China (PRC) is rapidly expanding its nuclear arsenal and “intends to produce over 1,000 warheads by 2030”, a new report by the Pentagon has revealed. In a report titled “Military and Security Developments Involving the People’s Republic of China (PRC) 2021”, the headquarters of the United States Department of Defense said that the accelerating pace of the PRC’s nuclear expansion may enable the country “to have up to 700 deliverable nuclear warheads by 2027”.

“The PRC likely intends to have at least 1,000 warheads by 2030,” the report also stated, adding that it will significantly outpace Pentagon estimates from last year. In 2020, the US Defense Department had projected that China would have 400 nuclear warheads by 2030.

The report also said that China is heavily investing in and expanding the number of its land, sea and air-base nuclear delivery platforms and constructing the infrastructure necessary to support the expansion.

“The PRC has possibly already established a nascent ‘nuclear triad’ with the development of a nuclear capable air-launched ballistic missile (ALBM) and improvement of its ground and sea-based nuclear capabilities,” Pentagon stated in the report.

It also informed that the country is supporting its nuclear expansion by “increasing its capacity to produce and separate plutonium by constructing fast breeder reactors and reprocessing facilities.”

“New developments in 2020 further suggest that the PRC intends to increase the peacetime readiness of its nuclear forces by moving to a launch-on-warning (LOW) posture with an expanded silo-based force,” the Pentagon also stated in the report that was released on Wednesday.

This comes in the backdrop of rising tension between the United States and China over Taiwan, where it had flown a record number of military flights, sparking concerns of a potential conflict. According to reports, China sent over 200 aircraft to Taiwan for exercises in the month of October, to exert pressure on the self-ruled island.

The United States, which backed the democratic government in Taiwan, has been trading warnings with China over the same. China claims the island as part of its own territory and views any foreign intervention over Taiwan as interference in its domestic affairs.

Meanwhile, the report also mentioned that China is seeking to establish a more robust overseas logistics and basing infrastructure to allow China’s People’s Liberation Army “to project and sustain military power at greater distances”. “Beyond its base in Djibouti, the PRC is pursuing additional military facilities to support naval, air, ground, cyber, and space power projection,” the Pentagon said in the report.

Enough is Enough: Global Nuclear Weapons Spending 2020 - ICAN

solar storm disturbs communication

Solar Storm And Internet Apocalypse: Massive Internet Outage, Offline Networks Warned

Read more at:

By Sharmishte Datti | Published: Sunday, September 12, 2021, 9:28 [IST] Can we imagine a week or even a day without the internet? Without internet for even a few hours, we tend to feel disconnected. But now, a scientist has warned that a solar superstorm is heading towards Earth and could lead to an “internet apocalypse”. The solar storm could potentially damage communication satellites and leave millions of people offline.

Solar Superstorm: Are We Ready For Offline Mode? This brings us to the question if we’re ready for such a large-scale outage? “Our infrastructure is not prepared for a large-scale solar event. We have very limited understanding of what the extent of the damage would be,” Abdu Jyothi answers in a quote to Wired. The author further explains the Earth will have roughly 13 hours to prepare for a severe solar superstorm.

dedicated by:


Solar Storm And Internet Apocalypse: Massive Internet Outage Warned

sin of killing gone if eat… Addition and Deduction

Killing Mosquitoes Sin

Feeding Ants good worthiness

Too Me

 கொன்றால் பாவம்….கூட்டல் கழித்தல்

கொசுக்கள் கொன்ற பாவம்

எறும்புகளுக்கு இரையாக்கிய புண்ணியம்


Human மனிதம்

Human மனிதம்

Dense Green Trees with out gap

Other Name to Truth is Green in Tamil



இடைவெளி இல்லா மரக்கூட்டம்

உண்மையின் வேறு பேர் பச்சை


Happy International friendship day 2021

Enough போதும் FRIENDSHIP (DAY)



Living  together is enough

Though Living together

Living Separately is enough

Though living Separately


சேர்ந்தே இருக்கிறோம் போதும்

சேர்ந்தே இருக்கிற போதும்

பிரிந்தே இருக்கிறோம் போதும்

பிரிந்தே இருக்கிற போதும்


happy friendship day 2021


Leaving விடை பெறு



I like and becomes fan to all

Because of wearing Mask

Migrate Get fame

 விடை பெறு

எல்லோரையும் இரசிக்க முடிகிறது

முகக் கவசம் அணிந்திருப்பதால்

இடம்  பெயர்(பெறு)

Why NASA is sending water bears and baby squid to the International Space Station

thanks: Indian Express.

Dedicated by: kavignar Thanigai.

The water bears and bobtail squid will be involved in experiments aboard the floating laboratory. They will arrive in a semi-frozen state, before being thawed out, revived and grown in a special bioculture system.

Explained: Why NASA is sending water bears and baby squid to the International Space Station

On June 3, NASA will send 128 glow-in-the-dark baby squids and some 5,000 tardigrades (also called water bears) to the International Space Station for research purposes.

The water animals, which will be launched aboard SpaceX’s 22nd cargo resupply mission to the ISS, are part of experiments that could help scientists design improved protective measures for astronauts going on long-duration space travel. The experiments are also aimed at better understanding how beneficial microbes interact with animals, potentially leading to breakthroughs in improving human health on Earth.

Research aboard the International Space Station

A space station is essentially a large spacecraft that remains in low-earth orbit for extended periods of time. It is like a large laboratory in space, and allows astronauts to come aboard and stay for weeks or months to carry out experiments in microgravity.

The ISS has been in space since 1998, and has been known for the exemplary cooperation between the five participating space agencies that run it: NASA (United States), Roscosmos (Russia), JAXA (Japan), ESA (Europe), and CSA (Canada).

For over 20 years since its launch, humans have continuously lived and carried out scientific investigations on the $150 billion ISS under microgravity conditions, being able to make breakthroughs in research not possible on Earth.

As per NASA, the floating laboratory has hosted more than 3,000 research and educational investigations from researchers in 108 countries and areas, carrying out cutting edge research in various disciplines, including biology, human physiology, and physical, material and space science.

So, why are the sea animals needed at the ISS?

The water bears and bobtail squid will be involved in experiments aboard the floating laboratory, and will be arriving in a semi-frozen state before they are thawed out, revived and grown in a special bioculture system, according to CNN.

One of these studies involves looking at how the water bears– tiny animals (around 1mm long) that can adapt to extreme conditions on Earth, including high pressure, temperature and radiation– would behave in a spaceflight environment. Researchers will be able to study their hardiness close up, and possibly identify the genes that allow them to become so resilient.

By learning how the water bears can survive in low gravity conditions, it would be possible to design better techniques to keep astronauts healthy on long-duration space missions.

Scientists also want to look at how microgravity conditions affect the relationship between the bobtail squid –which are also tiny (3 mm long)– and beneficial microbes, as part of a study called UMAMI, short for Understanding of Microgravity on Animal-Microbe Interactions.

Microbes play a crucial role in the normal development of animal tissues and in maintaining human health, and the research will allow scientists to have a better understanding of how beneficial microbes interact with animals when there is a lack of gravity.

In the human body, microorganisms contribute to a variety of functions, including digestion, developing the immune system and detoxifying harmful chemicals. A disruption in our relationship with these microbes can lead to disease.

As per NASA, this research may lead to important breakthroughs. On Earth, we may be able to find ways to protect and even enhance the complex relationship between animals and beneficial microbes, ensuring better human health and well being. In space, the findings will help space agencies develop better measures to protect astronauts from adverse host-microbe alterations on long-duration missions.

earth like clouds on Mars

thanks News 18

Dedicated by : Kavignar Thanigai

NASA’s Mars Curiosity Rover Captures Earth-like Clouds Shining on the Red Planet


Clouds are typically found at the planet’s equator in the coldest time of year, when Mars is the farthest from the Sun in its oval-shaped orbit.

NASA’s Mars Curiosity rover has captured shining clouds on the Red Planet, which arrived earlier and formed higher than expected. The atmosphere on Mars is usually thin, dry, and cloudy days are rare. And clouds are typically found at the planet’s equator in the coldest time of year, when Mars is the farthest from the Sun in its oval-shaped orbit. But the scientists noticed clouds forming over NASA’s Curiosity rover earlier than expected, one full Martian year ago – two Earth years.

In late January, this year, the team started documenting these “early” clouds. The images show wispy puffs filled with ice crystals that scattered light from the setting Sun, some of them shimmering with colour.

The rover’s Mast Camera, or Mastcam snapped colour images and the iridescent, or “mother of pearl” clouds on March 5, 2021, the 3,048th Martian day, or sol, of the mission.

“If you see a cloud with a shimmery pastel set of colors in it, that’s because the cloud particles are all nearly identical in size. That’s usually happening just after the clouds have formed and have all grown at the same rate,” said Mark Lemmon, an atmospheric scientist with the Space Science Institute in Boulder, Colorado.

These clouds are among the more colorful things on the Red Planet, Lemmon added. If you were skygazing next to Curiosity, you could see the colours with the naked eye, although they’d be faint.

“I always marvel at the colours that show up: reds and greens and blues and purples. It’s really cool to see something shining with lots of colour on Mars,” Lemmon said.

On March 31, the 3,075th sol or Martian day of the mission, the navigation cameras on the mast of Curiosity also captured black-and-white images: fine, rippling structures of the clouds, just after sunset.

“Viewed just after sunset, their ice crystals catch the fading light, causing them to appear to glow against the darkening sky. These twilight clouds, also known as “noctilucent” (Latin for “night shining”) clouds, grow brighter as they fill with crystals, then darken after the Sun’s position in the sky drops below their altitude, the US space agency said in a statement.

Besides being spectacular displays, such images help scientists understand how clouds form on Mars and why these recent ones are different, NASA said.

Further, the Curiosity team also discovered that the early-arrival clouds are actually at higher altitudes than is typical. Most Martian clouds hover no more than about 37 miles (60 kilometres) in the sky and are composed of water ice. But the clouds Curiosity has imaged are at a higher altitude, where it’s very cold, indicating that they are likely made of frozen carbon dioxide, or dry ice.

Curiosity, which landed on Mars in 2012, was designed to assess whether Mars ever had an environment able to support small life forms called microbes. In other words, its mission is to determine the planet’s “habitability”.



blood moon

thanks Gulf news

dedicated by Kavignar Thanigai.

Super moon in Sharjah

‘Scientists Silenced and Disappeared’: New Study Says China Created Virus in Lab, Tried to Cover Tracks

From Wuhan, jiāyóu! - Stories - COFCO International

thanks: News 18

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

The 22-page paper to be published in the journal Quarterly Review of Biophysics Discovery, pieced together how Chinese scientists built the tools to create the virus.

new study, quoted by ANI, has found that Chinese scientists created the virus in a lab in Wuhan, then tried to cover their tracks by reverse-engineering versions of the virus to make it look like it evolved naturally from bats.

The novel coronavirus SARS-CoV-2 virus has no “credible natural ancestor” and was created by Chinese scientists who were working on a “Gain of Function” project in a Wuhan lab, the Daily Mail reported on Sunday, citing a new research paper by British professor Angus Dalgleish and Norwegian scientist Dr Birger Sorensen.

The new research claims that scientists took a natural coronavirus “backbone” found in Chinese cave bats and spliced onto it a new “spike”, turning it into the deadly and highly transmissible COVID-19.

The paper also quotes that researchers found “unique fingerprints” in COVID-19 samples that they say could only have arisen from manipulation in a laboratory.

Authors Dalgleish and Sorensen wrote in their paper that they had prima facie evidence of retro-engineering in China” for a year, but were ignored by academics and major journals, reported DailyMail.com.

The study alleged “deliberate destruction, concealment or contamination of data” at Chinese labs and notes the silencing and disappearance of scientists in China who spoke out about the activities.

The research, has been obtained by DailyMail.com, is expected to intensify the ongoing debate on China’s role in creating the virus that has claimed thousands of lives.

In the 22-page paper which is set to be published in the scientific journal Quarterly Review of Biophysics Discovery, Dalgleish and Sorensen pieced together how Chinese scientists, some working with American universities, allegedly built the tools to create the coronavirus.

Incidentally, “Gain of Function” projects, which involves tweaking natural viruses to make them more infectious, had been outlawed by former US President Barack Obama.

In the paper, the scientists wrote that a natural virus pandemic would be expected to mutate gradually and become infectious but less pathogenic, which did not happen in the case of Covid-19.

Dalgleish and Sorensen claimed that after the pandemic began, Chinese scientists took samples of the COVID-19 virus and “retro-engineered” it, making it appear as if it had evolved naturally.

The scientists also highlighted that Chinese scientists who wished to share their knowledge have not been able to do so or have disappeared.

Sorensen said that he believes the virus escaped from lower security areas of the institute, where he believes Gain of Function research was performed, reported DailyMail.com.

Meanwhile, US President Joe Biden on May 26 said he has asked the US intelligence community to “redouble their efforts” to come to a conclusion on the origins of Covid-19 and report back to him within 90 days.

collins no more participated in first moon man mission


Indian Express

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.

On May 25, 1961, then US President John F Kennedy had set a goal for the Apollo 11 mission – to perform a crewed lunar landing and return to Earth

Michael Collins, the pilot of the Apollo 11 spacecraft that carried Neil Armstrong and Edwin “Buzz” Aldrin to the moon, died on Wednesday in Florida at the age of 90 while battling cancer.

The Apollo 11 mission

On May 25, 1961, then US President John F Kennedy had set a goal for the Apollo 11 mission – to perform a crewed lunar landing and return to Earth. After eight years, on July 16, 1969, Apollo 11 launched from Cape Kennedy in Florida carrying Commander Neil, Command Module Pilot Collins and Lunar Module Pilot Aldrin.

Apollo 11 became one of the most publicly recognised missions of NASA and was the first manned mission to the Moon. At a cost of around $24 billion, the US sent “three young men on a human adventure of mythological proportions with the whole of the civilised world invited to watch – for better or worse”, the Los Angeles Times wrote in July 1969. An estimated 650 million people watched Armstrong’s televised image as he took his first step on the moon and said the famous words, “…one small step for a man, one giant leap for mankind.”

Even so, while Armstrong and Aldrin (the Toy Story character Buzz Lightyear was named after him) became well-known around the world for being the first humans to step on the moon, Collins did not receive widespread recognition.

As Armstrong and Aldrin stepped on the lunar surface, Collins remained in lunar orbit, taking rounds of the Moon in the command module called Columbia for over 21 hours. Collins was also an important link between Mission Control and the astronauts during this time. In the preface to the 2009 edition of Collins’s autobiography Carrying Fire: An Astronaut’s Journey, he wrote “Every once in a while I look up at the moon, but not too often: been there, done that…”.

“When I looked back at Earth from the moon, if I could use only one word to describe the tiny thing it would have been fragile,” he added.

Collins’s career

In October 1963, Collins was one of the third group of astronauts named by NASA and served as a backup pilot for the Gemini VII mission. Before piloting the Apollo 11 mission, Collins was a pilot on the three-day Gemini X mission, which was launched on July 18, 1966.


During the Apollo mission, Collins performed the final redocking maneuvers following a successful lunar orbit rendezvous. Among the accomplishments of the Apollo 11 mission were collection of lunar surface samples for return to earth, deployment of lunar surface experiments, and an extensive evaluation of the life supporting extravehicular mobility unit worn by astronauts, NASA notes.

In 1970, Collins left NASA and went on to become the Director of the National Air and Space Museum in Washington. Collins was presented with the Presidential Medal for Freedom in 1969 and became the recipient of the NASA Exceptional Service Medal, the Air Force Command Pilot Astronaut Wings, and the Air Force Distinguished Flying Cross subsequently.

In the preface of his book Collins wrote, “On my tombstone should be inscribed LUCKY because that is the overriding feeling I have today. Neil Armstrong was born in 1930, Buzz Aldrin in 1930, Mike Collins in 1930. We came along at exactly the right time.”


New Delhi (ANI). NASA is preparing for the first control flight of an Mars Mars helicopter to be deployed on a Mars mission. This is the first time a helicopter has flown over the surface of Mars and captured its view on camera. It is scheduled for April 8, 2021. Weighing less than 2 kg, this invented helicopter is amazing. We can tell you that NASA has already shown something amazing in this mission. NASA’s mission team, meanwhile, set several milestones.

मंगल पर उड़ान के लिए तैयार हो रहा नासा

As for the ingenious helicopter, let me tell you that it is currently attached to the Persistence Rover as well. Recently, this rover flew over the surface of Mars, and NASA released a video of it. Its sound is also heard in this video, so the marks on the surface of Mars can be clearly seen. The rover successfully landed on Mars on February 18.

NASA’s rover is currently in the same place where ingenuity should have flown historically. Lori Glace, director of NASA’s Planetary Science Division, says NASA’s Sojourner rover first touched the planet’s surface in 1997. It turned out at the time that it was possible to walk on this red planet. This mission gave a new thought and dimension to the future mission. The same concept has been applied to all missions to Mars since then. He says the scientists who discovered it want to know a lot. If the invention is successful in its function, it will be further expanded. In this way, it can also play an important role in the future search for Mars.READ  Researchers have discovered a toothless, two-fingered dinosaur species

Let me tell you, it’s very difficult to fly in a controlled manner at NASA. According to NASA, this is more difficult than flying on Earth. Compared to Earth, Mars has only one-third of its gravitational pull. At the same time, its atmosphere is about one percent thicker than Earth’s. Half of the sunlight reaches the earth. The night temperature on Mars drops to 130 degrees. This temperature can freeze anything and break electrical components or components. Tactfully crafted with the position of the percussion. This is why it is kept small in size.https://www.youtube.com/embed/0RQWv1ybsjM?feature=oembed

Its weight is too small to fit on Mars. At the fall temperature of Mars, the heater installed in it will keep it warm. Before the start of the mission, the helicopter builds a vacuum chamber and tests it like Mars. The chamber was built by NASA’s Jet Propulsion Lab in Southern California. It is completely given the shape of Mars. The rocks, the atmosphere and the temperature are all the same

Mars helicopter chief engineer Bob Balaram said the mission began six years ago. In his opinion, deploying this helicopter and flying it would be very challenging. The airfield of this helicopter is approximately 33 feet to 33 feet. Only if the team of both the helicopter and the rover makes sure it is in their airfield in the right place will it be deployed and ready for flight and ready to make history.

Farah Alibe of Mars Helicopter Integration says no such experiment has taken place before. Once it is deployed, the steps cannot be reversed. For the success of this mission, better coordination among team members is required. Everyone will depend on each other for this mission. If you ever feel that work is not going according to plan, stop and think about it later.

The deployment process of this helicopter takes about six days. For the first time, Team Bolt, based at NASA headquarters, will launch a braking device that will help launch and land the helicopter. After this, they will try to rotate the helicopter to its own location using a pyrotechnic device. It will then check its landing logs and make the final stop.

thanks: swords today

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Comet from edge of solar system killed the dinosaurs: study

Sixty-six million years ago, a huge celestial object struck off the coast of where is now Mexico, triggering a catastrophic “impact winter” that eventually wiped out three-quarters of life on Earth, including the dinosaurs.

A pair of astronomers at Harvard University say they have now resolved long-standing mysteries surrounding the nature and origin of the “Chicxulub impactor.”

Their analysis suggests it was a comet that originated in a region of icy debris on the edge of the solar system, that Jupiter was responsible for it crashing into our planet, and that we can expect similar impacts every 250 million to 750 million years.

The duo’s paper, published in the journal Scientific Reports this week, pushes back against an older theory that claims the object was a fragment of an asteroid that came from our solar system’s Main Belt.

“Jupiter is so important because it’s the most massive planet in our solar system,” lead author Amir Siraj told AFP.

Jupiter ends up acting as a kind of “pinball machine” that “kicks these incoming long-period comets into orbits that bring them very close to the sun.”

So-called “long-period comets” come from the Oort cloud, thought to be a giant spherical shell surrounding the solar system like a bubble that is made of icy pieces of debris the size of mountains or larger.

The long-period comets take about 200 years to orbit the sun, and are also called sungrazers because of how close they pass.

Because they come from the deep freeze of the outer solar system, comets are icier than asteroids, and are known for the stunning gas and dust trails that they produce as they melt.

But, the evaporative impact of the sun’s heat on sungrazers is nothing compared to the massive tidal forces they experience when one side faces our star, said Siraj.

“As a result, these comets experience such a large tidal force that the most massive of them would shatter into about a thousand fragments, each of those fragments large enough to produce a Chicxulub size impactor, or dinosaur-killing event on Earth.”

Siraj and his co-author Avi Loeb, a professor of science, developed a statistical model that showed the probability that long-period comets would hit Earth that is consistent with the age of Chicxulub and other known impactors.

Another line of evidence in favor of the comet origin is the composition of Chicxulub: only about a tenth of all asteroids from the Main Belt, which lies between Mars and Jupiter, are made up of carbonaceous chondrite, while most comets have it.

Evidence suggests the Chicxulub crater and other similar craters, such as the Vredefort crater in South Africa that was struck about 2 billion years ago, and the million-year-old Zhamanshin crater in Kazakhstan, all had carbonaceous chondrite.

The hypothesis can be tested by further studying these craters, ones on the moon, or even by sending out space probes to take samples from comets.

Though Siraj and Loeb calculated Chicxulub-like impactors would occur once every few hundreds of millions of years, “it’s a statistical thing, you say, ‘on average, it’s every so often’ but you never know when the next one will come,” said Loeb.

“The best way to find out is to search the sky,” he concluded.Source(s): AFP



‘Earth’s ice loss increases at record speed’

thanks to: Creater Kashmir

{Press Trust of India}

Dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Earth has lost 28 trillion tonnes of ice between 1994 and 2017, according to a study which reveals that the rate at which ice is disappearing across the planet is speeding up.

The research, published on Monday in TheCryosphere journal, found that the rate of ice loss from the Earth has increased markedly within the past three decades, from 0.8 trillion tonnes per year in the 1990s to 1.3 trillion tonnes per year by 2017.TRENDING NEWS

The team, led by researchers at the University of Leeds in the UK, is the first to carry out a survey of global ice loss using satellite data.

The researchers noted that ice melt across the globe raises sea levels, increases the risk of flooding to coastal communities, and threatens to wipe out natural habitats which the wildlife depends on.

The study shows that overall, there has been a 65 per cent increase in the rate of ice loss over the 23-year survey.

This has been mainly driven by steep rise in losses from the polar ice sheets in Antarctica and Greenland.

“Although every region we studied lost ice, losses from the Antarctic and Greenland ice sheets have accelerated the most,” said lead author Thomas Slater, a Research Fellow at Leeds University.

“The ice sheets are now following the worst-case climate warming scenarios set out by the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change. Sea-level rise on this scale will have very serious impacts on coastal communities this century,” Slater said.

The researchers noted that the increase in ice loss has been triggered by warming of the atmosphere and oceans, which have warmed by 0.26 and 0.12 degrees Celsius per decade since the 1980, respectively.

The majority of all ice loss was driven by atmospheric melting (68  per cent), with the remaining losses (32 per cent) being driven by oceanic melting, they said.

The survey covers 215,000 mountain glaciers spread around the planet, the polar ice sheets in Greenland and Antarctica, the ice shelves floating around Antarctica, and sea ice drifting in the Arctic and Southern Oceans.

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose: Champion of freedom who inspired the world

Netaji Subhash Chandra Bose Jayanti Quotes, Speech, famous Thoughts, Essay  in English: Inspirational quotes, famous thoughts of the leader

thanks: Hindustan times opinion

prahalath singh patel

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai

Netaji Subhas Chandra Bose ’s life is a story of struggle. It is the story of a young dreamer that tells the saga of consciousness, struggle and success in every eye; one who has the power to rip the ground with his arms; one who talks about making a hole in the sky; one who is anxious to achieve his goals; one who does not accept anything for free; and if he wants freedom, he is ready to spill his blood. Thousands of people sacrificed their lives on Netaji’s call. He created an army against the British in no time.

Netaji was born in Cuttack in Odisha in 1897, graduated from Kolkata, and proved his mettle by becoming an Indian Civil Services (ICS) officer. But he was not accustomed to a life of comfort and amenities that came with his job. He was a warrior, who had to wage the freedom struggle. Not only did he embrace the freedom movement wholeheartedly, but also became an inspiration for freedom. With the slogan “Give me blood and I will give you freedom”, he started preparing to awaken the country. Such was the charisma of his philosophy and personality that whoever listened to him was attracted to him. His popularity skyrocketed and he became “Netaji” to the general public.

He was so fond of Bharat Mata that his country tied to the chains of slavery did not let him live peacefully. People beyond India’s borders also developed a fascination for him. Heads of states of important countries stood by him and Netaji lit the fire of the freedom struggle beyond India’s shores. He built a force and presented that force before the enemies of the country as the Azad Hind Fauj (Indian National Army). He gave the slogan of “Dilli Chalo” with a new spirit. Thousands of soldiers of his 60,000-strong army sacrificed their lives for the country.

“Success always stands on the pillar of failure.” Bose lived with this philosophy and also inspired others. Netaji encountered failures several times, but he converted those failures to triumph with his struggle. Whether it is municipal politics, the journey from a common Congressman to the Congress president’s position, the formation of the Forward Bloc or the struggle of the Indian National Army, he passed every test with distinction.

Bose accepted the leadership of Mahatma Gandhi, but ironically, Gandhiji himself became the cause of him leaving the Congress. But the two leaders always had respect for each other.

At the time of India’s independence, Clement Attlee was the British Prime Minister. He came to Kolkata in 1956. At that time, his host, governor and former Calcutta high court chief justice PB Chakravartti, tried to find out from him the reason behind the British decision to grant freedom to India. In response, Attlee said that the loyalty of the Indian army and navy to the British state was declining due to the increasing military activities of Bose’s Azad Hind Fauj. This was one of the major reasons. This acknowledgement proves the great contribution of Bose to India’s independence. It finds a mention in a letter written to the publisher by Justice Chakravartti in the book “A History of Bengal” by RC Majumdar.

Jabalpur in Madhya Pradesh had a major contribution in the life of Netaji. The banks of the Narmada transformed his life. The Tripuri Congress session was held from March 4-11, 1939 in Jabalpur. Despite poor health, Netaji had arrived on a stretcher to participate in it. Thereafter, he came again to Jabalpur on July 4, 1939 to form the Forward Bloc. The people of Madhya Pradesh have a deep relationship with Netaji. In every town of the state, there’s a ward in his name. Subhas Chandra Bose’s message to his colleagues was: “Success may be distant, but it is imperative”. Bose used to say, “If a person is not obsessed, he can never become great. But he should also have something else inside him.” Bose is credited with giving global identity to the Indian leadership. Earlier, Swami Vivekananda had enlightened the world about India’s spiritual and cultural superiority and identity.

Netaji was also fluent in many Indian languages. Bose’s struggle for freedom proved to be an inspiration not just for India, but also for all Third World countries. The Indian freedom struggle and the war of independence led by Bose had a profound impact on those countries. Netaji’s status establishes him as the “hero of freedom” globally.

new achievement from Indian women on airways

All-women Air India pilot team scripts history by flying over world’s longest air route

“It was an exciting experience since it was never done before. It took almost 17 hours to reach here,” Shivani Manhas, one of the four pilots, who operated Air India’s inaugural San Francisco-Bengaluru flight, told ANI.

All-women Air India pilot team scripts history by flying over world's longest air route

Image courtesy: ANIShare:  Written By:

Share:  Written By:

Zee Media Bureau
Edited By:

Arun Kumar Chaubey
Updated:Jan 11, 2021, 07:23 AM IST

dedicated by : Kavignar Thanigai.


  1. According to aviation experts, flying over the North Pole is extremely technical and requires skill and experience
  2. The longest flight over the North Pole will be another feather in Captain Zoya’s cap
  3. Captain Zoya has been the youngest woman pilot to fly a Boeing-777 in 2013

Karnataka: An all-women Air India pilot team flew over the North Pole on the world’s longest air route Air and successfully landed at Kempegowda International Airport in Bengaluru from San Francisco, covering a distance of about 16,000 kilometres.

“It was an exciting experience since it was never done before. It took almost 17 hours to reach here,” Shivani Manhas, one of the four pilots, who operated Air India’s inaugural San Francisco-Bengaluru flight, told ANI.

“Today, we created world history by not only flying over the North Pole but also by having all women pilots who successfully did it. We are extremely happy and proud to be part of it. This route has saved 10 tonnes of fuel,” Captain Zoya Aggarwal told ANI at Bengaluru airport.

The all-women pilot team of Air India started their flight from San Fransico (SFO) and reached Bengaluru on January 11, covering a distance of about 16,000 kilometres.

According to aviation experts, flying over the North Pole is extremely technical and requires skill and experience. The longest flight over the North Pole will be another feather in Captain Zoya’s cap as she was the youngest woman pilot to fly a Boeing-777 in 2013.

“I am the youngest woman commander in the world on Boeing 777. Women should have self-belief even if they face societal pressure not consider any task impossible,” she was earlier quoted by ANI.

Zee Media Bureau
Edited By:

Arun Kumar Chaubey
Updated:Jan 11, 2021, 07:23 AM IST


  1. According to aviation experts, flying over the North Pole is extremely technical and requires skill and experience
  2. The longest flight over the North Pole will be another feather in Captain Zoya’s cap
  3. Captain Zoya has been the youngest woman pilot to fly a Boeing-777 in 2013

Karnataka: An all-women Air India pilot team flew over the North Pole on the world’s longest air route Air and successfully landed at Kempegowda International Airport in Bengaluru from San Francisco, covering a distance of about 16,000 kilometres.

“It was an exciting experience since it was never done before. It took almost 17 hours to reach here,” Shivani Manhas, one of the four pilots, who operated Air India’s inaugural San Francisco-Bengaluru flight, told ANI.

drink food chew water

NASA Finds Water On Moon’s Sun-Facing Areas For The Very First Time

For the first time ever, NASA has confirmed that water exists even on sun-lit areas of the moon.

The discovery was made by NASA’s SOFIA or Stratospheric Observatory for Infrared Astronomy in a historic moment towards humanity’s efforts towards colonizing the moon in the near future. 

a close up of the moon: moon has water© Provided by Indiatimes moon has waterNASA

ALSO READ: NASA Artemis: Musk’s SpaceX And Bezos’s Blue Origin Compete To Take Humanity To The Moon

This discovery indicates that water may be more distributed across the lunar surface, and not limited to cold, shadowed places than what was previously estimated.

“We had indications that H2O – the familiar water we know – might be present on the sunlit side of the Moon,” said Paul Hertz, director of the Astrophysics Division in the Science Mission Directorate at NASA Headquarters in Washington. 

“Now we know it is there,” added Hertz, in a NASA statement. “This discovery challenges our understanding of the lunar surface and raises intriguing questions about resources relevant for deep space exploration.”

a close up of a piece of wood: NASA water on moon© Provided by Indiatimes NASA water on moonNASA

ALSO READ: NASA’s Artemis Mission: 11 Shortlisted Astronauts To Take 2nd Giant Leap On Moon, Possibly Mars

NASA always knew the moon had water locked into its surface or hidden below it in some shape or form. Like the shaded image of the moon’s Shackleton Crater shown above, a 21-km-wide crater permanently shadowed crater near the lunar south pole where water ice can form, according to NASA.

But till today, there was no conclusive proof that water molecules could also be found on the sun-facing region of the moon. This is indeed huge news from NASA’s future moon mission planning perspective.

NASA’s crediting the discovery of water in sunlit areas of the lunar surface to Goddard postdoc Dr. Casey Honniball, in an official tweet from their Twitter account.https://platform.twitter.com/embed/index.html?dnt=false&embedId=twitter-widget-0&frame=false&hideCard=false&hideThread=false&id=1320757939892899842&lang=en&origin=https%3A%2F%2Fwww.indiatimes.com%2Ftechnology%2Fscience-and-future%2Fnasa-moon-water-discovery-526143.html&theme=light&widgetsVersion=ed20a2b%3A1601588405575&width=550px  

SOFIA is an airborne observatory (a customized aeroplane, in fact) that detected water molecules (H2O) in Clavius Crater, one of the largest craters visible from Earth, located in the Moon’s southern hemisphere.

Data from this location revealed water in concentrations of 100 to 412 parts per million – roughly equivalent to a 12-ounce bottle of water – trapped in a cubic meter of soil spread across the lunar surface. The results are published in the latest issue of Nature Astronomy.

“Without a thick atmosphere, water on the sunlit lunar surface should just be lost to space,” said Dr Casey Honniball, who is now a postdoctoral fellow at NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Center in Greenbelt, Maryland. “Yet somehow we’re seeing it. Something is generating the water, and something must be trapping it there.”

a close up of the moon: moon lunar surface© Provided by Indiatimes moon lunar surfaceNASA

Before NASA and other earth-bound aerospace missions start thinking about possibilities of this water discovery, more proof needs to be found about just how much water does the average lunar surface contain. And looks like we won’t have to wait too long to find the answer to that question, as NASA’s Artemis Missions plan to send a male and female astronaut back to the surface of the moon by 2024. I’m sure they will drill and find more clues towards unlocking this water on moon mystery.

ALSO READ: NASA Will Send 1st Woman To Land On Moon In 2024, In A Historic ‘Artemis’ Mission

thanks:india times

Dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.



1. Sensitive teacher is like a sensitive teeth

    Be smile to every one be sensitive to every one

2. Without talent we can’t teach

    With out teeth  we can’t teach

3. Face is the index of the mind

    But a Smile is the index of the face

    Dental care by the words tutors

    Decides the destiny of the modern makers

    what a vision and Future out look!

4. One Rhyme says:

     Taking too many choclates

     Will give you cavities

     Jaani jaani yes ma

     Telling lies no ma

  It remembers the popular Rhymes

5. A teachers planting seeds of knowledge

    I like to plant of yours teeth

   In this sense teacher acting as a Dentist

   Dentists acting as Teachers

6. When my parent tell me to do my home work

    My teacher taught me importance of hard work

   Education can give me success

  I cannot achieve this with out my teachers

 As I Grow older, I will be get teachers new

So; learning never ends.

Here through this Golden words we are clearly understood

The importance of Education for ever

7. Your Teeth are unique to you

    Just like your fingerprint…

   Yes it is very truthful scientific coined words

   even Forensic Department is considering

   Finger prints, Teeth (bites and presses symptoms) and 

  Retina are proofs even to Twins to differentiate 

 in criminal procedures.

8. Twice in a day in the morning and at the night

    Brush: up and down up and down

   It symbolically refers to me To remembering

  Up and down of our life journey

9. I do have a cavity this candy has their own Gravity

   What a Rhyming…cavity and Gravity…

10. Don’t often eat chocolate, don’t don’t don’t with mothers care

Here I conclude this happiest occasion with memories.

NASA Unveils Plan to Land First Woman on the Moon in 2024

NASA’s announcement to send a woman to the moon comes as President Donald Trump is courting female voters ahead of his bid for a second term in office in the Nov 3 election.

NASA Plans to Land First Woman on the Moon in 2024

he U.S. National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has unveiled a plan to land the first woman on the moon in 2024. NASA Administrator Jim Bridenstine said the $28 billion plan aims to return humans to the lunar surface for the first time since 1972. “We’re going back to the moon for scientific discovery, economic benefits, and inspiration for a new generation of explorers,” Bridenstine said in a statement Monday. “As we build up a sustainable presence, we’re also building momentum toward those first human steps on the Red Planet,” referring to Mars. Follow NewsGram on Twitter to stay updated about the World news. NASA’s moon mission is part of its Artemis plan. Astronauts will be propelled to the moon by NASA’s new rocket, the Space Launch System (SLS), and the Orion spacecraft. Bridenstine told reporters that “political risks” have frequently threatened NASA’s work, especially before such a crucial election. If Congress approves $3.2 billion in initial funding by Christmas, “we’re still on track for a 2024 moon landing,” he said. .

NASA’s announcement to send a woman to the moon comes as President Donald Trump is courting female voters ahead of his bid for a second term in office in the Nov. 3 election. Trump has vowed to nominate a woman sometime this week to replace late Supreme Court Justice Ruth Bader Ginsburg. Polls have shown Trump trailing Democratic presidential candidate Joe Biden among female voters by wide margins, particularly among white suburban women. Also Read: 42% of Indian Workers Use Personal Devices to Access Corporate Data Three projects are competing to build a lunar lander that will transport two astronauts to the moon from the Orion vessel. One is being developed by Blue Origin, founded by Amazon CEO Jeff Bezos in partnership with Draper, Lockheed Martin, and Northrup Grumman. The other projects are under development by Elon Musk’s SpaceX and Dynetics. After an Artemis 1 unmanned flight around the moon in 2021 and an Artemis II manned trip around the moon in 2023, Artemis III will land on the lunar surface in 2024 and remain for a week. Astronauts will spend their time collecting soil and rock samples, searching for water and other resources, and conducting science experiments. (VOA).

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.

NASA transforms telescope data on Milky Way galaxy into sound

We have seen images and videos of our Milky Way galaxy captured by telescopes, but now for the first time, NASA (National Aeronautics Space Administration) has provided the opportunity to hear the sound of the centre of the Milky Way with a process of Sonification that translates data into sound.

This sonification project is led by NASA’s Chandra X-ray Center as part of the space agency’s Universe of Learning (UoL) program. It allows space enthusiasts to listen to the centre of the Milky Way (called the Galactic Center) as observed in X-ray, optical, and infrared light.

In the video below, as the cursor moves across the image, sounds represent the position and brightness of the sources.

Space | Image credit: Pixabay

“The translation begins on the left side of the image and moves to the right, with the sounds representing the position and brightness of the sources. The light of objects located towards the top of the image is heard as higher pitches while the intensity of the light controls the volume.”


“The crescendo happens when we reach the bright region to the lower right of the image. This is where the 4-million-solar-mass supermassive black hole at the centre of the Galaxy, known as Sagittarius A* (A-star), resides, and where the clouds of gas and dust are the brightest,” noted NASA in its official blog post.

Besides translating the data on Galactic Center into sound, this project has also produced sonified versions of the remains of a supernova called Cassiopeia A, or Cas A, and the “Pillars of Creation” located in Messier 16.


Scientists discover ‘baby’ milky way 12 billion light years away


jagran English

dedicated by:

Kavignar Thanigai.

New Delhi | Jagran Trending Desk: Scientists at Germany’s European Southern Observatory (ESO) have discovered a ‘baby’ galaxy which is 12 billion light-years away from earth. The golden halo is the most distant Milky Way look-alike astronomers have come across so far.

a worm on the ground© Provided by Jagran EnglishIt has features similar to our Milky Way – a rotating disc and a bulge, which is the high density of stars packed tightly around the galactic centre.

“This is the first time a bulge has been seen this early in the history of the Universe, making SPT0418-47 the most distant Milky Way look-alike,” the ESO said.

The galaxy, called SPT0418-47, is so far away that it took billions of years for its light to reach Earth and so our image of it is from deep in the past, said the European Southern Observatory (ESO), which was involved in the discovery.

This was when the Universe was 1.4 billion years old – just 10 percent of its current age – and galaxies were still forming.

The “baby” SPT0418-47 was picked up by the powerful Alma radio telescope in Chile using a technique called gravitational lensing, where a nearby galaxy acts as a powerful magnifying glass, the ESO said in a statement.

In pics: Stunning view of space 



ISRO’s Mangalyaan captures image of Phobos, the biggest moon of Mars

thanks to:jagran English

smran babber.

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

with PTI inputs

Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Mars Orbiter Mission onboard with The Mars Colour Camera (MCC) has captured the image of Phobos, the closest and biggest moon of Mars.

a close up of a logo

ISRO along with the image in an update said, “Spatial resolution of the image is 210 m. This is a composite image generated from 6 MCC frames and has been color corrected.”

The image is said to be captured on July 1 when MOM was about 7,200 km from Mars and 4,200 km from Phobos. The closest and biggest moon of Mars, Phobos is largely believed to be made up of carbonaceous chondrites.

Gallery: Space discoveries that will blow your mind (Stacker)

a close up of a light: The size of the universe is hard to fathom, and it’s expanding even faster than scientists originally thought. While humans will never map out the entirety of space, that doesn’t stop them from exploring it. The National Aeronautics and Space Administration (NASA) has been around since 1958. Japan, Russia, and France—just to name a few countries—all have space agencies dedicated to exploring the final frontier.

Since NASA’s inception 60 years ago, astronauts have landed on the moon, parked a robot-controlled rover on Mars, and discovered thousands of exoplanets—planets that orbit stars outside of this solar system. Scientists can even explore the 95% of invisible space composed of dark energy, dark matter, and dark radiation. In 2018 alone, scientists discovered that Earth may have been shaped like a donut, stars are sometimes colder than planets, and all sunlike stars probably have twins. In April 2019, a team of 200 researchers revealed the first direct visual evidence of a black hole. 

Stacker compiled a list of 30 mind-blowing space discoveries after searching news archives and checking the latest from NASA. Click through to see what they’ve uncovered.

You may also like: Super bizarre data sets you might not know exist


ISRO in a statement said, “the violent phase that Phobos has encountered is seen in the large section gouged out from a past collision (Stickney crater) and bouncing ejecta.” It further stated that Stickney, the largest crater on Phobos along with the other craters (Shklovsky, Roche & Grildrig) are also seen in this image.

Indian Space Research Organisation’s (ISRO) Mars Orbiter Mission, also known as Mangalyaan was initially meant to last for six months, but subsequently, ISRO claimed that it had enough fuel for it to last “many years.”

On September 24, 2014, India had successfully placed the Mars Orbiter Mission spacecraft in orbit around the the red planet, in its very first attempt, thus breaking into an elite club.

On November 5, 2013, ISRO had launched the spacecraft on its nine-month-long odyssey on a homegrown PSLV rocket from Sriharikota in Andhra Pradesh which had escaped the earth’s gravitational field on December 1, 2013.

The MOM mission which amounts to a total of Rs 450-crore budget aims to study the Martian surface and mineral composition as well as scan its atmosphere for methane (an indicator of life on Mars).

The Mars Orbiter has five scientific instruments – Lyman Alpha Photometer (LAP), Methane Sensor for Mars (MSM), Mars Exospheric Neutral Composition Analyser (MENCA), Mars Colour Camera (MCC) and Thermal Infrared Imaging Spectrometer.

(With PTI inputs)

Undiscovered massive structures detected deep within Earth’s core

The map created by the UMD team shows a large area under the Pacific and reveals hot and dense regions below Hawaii and the Marquesas islands in French Polynesia.


thanks Hindustan Times

dedicated by Kavignar Thanigai.


The analysis has detected widespread, heterogenous structures – areas of unusually dense, hot rock – at Earth’s core-mantle boundary than previously known.

Scientists have discovered previously unknown structures deep inside the Earth – at a depth of around 2,900 km – paving the way towards a new map that shows details of what Earth’s interior looks like, just above the liquid iron core.

The research by geophysicists at the University of Maryland (UMD) was published in the journal Science.

Using a technique called the ‘Sequencer’ that was originally designed to explore the cosmos, thousands of seismograms –records of vibrations of earth following an earthquake – from the past 30 years were analysed. The analysis has detected widespread, heterogenous structures – areas of unusually dense, hot rock – at the core-mantle boundary than previously known.

Doyeon Kim, the lead author of the research, says that analysing thousands of echoes instead of just a few has given a totally new perspective.

“By looking at thousands of core-mantle boundary echoes at once, instead of focusing on a few at a time, as is usually done, we have gotten a totally new perspective,” said Kim, a postdoctoral fellow in the UMD Department of Geology. “This is showing us that the core-mantle boundary region has lots of structures that can produce these echoes, and that was something we didn’t realize before because we only had a narrow view.”

The map created by the UMD team shows a large area under the Pacific and reveals hot and dense regions below Hawaii and the Marquesas islands in French Polynesia.

“We were surprised to find such a big feature beneath the Marquesas Islands that we didn’t even know existed before,” said Vedran Lekic, a co-author of the study.

“This is really exciting, because it shows how the Sequencer algorithm can help us to contextualize seismogram data across the globe in a way we couldn’t before.”

Earth’s magnetic field weakens; satellites and spacecrafts malfunction

We have all read about how the magnetic field of the earth protects us from the solar radiation. However, according to reports, that magnetic field is now weakening.

As per the reports, the magnetic field around the earth, on an average, has lost almost 10% of its strength over the last two centuries.

However, a rapid shrink has been observed in the South Atlantic Anomaly, a stretch between Africa and South America. A large and rapid shrink has been observed in this region over the past 50 years just as the area itself has grown and moved westward.

Scientists from European Space Agency (ESA) from the Swarm Data, Innovation and Science Cluster (DISC) are using this data from ESA’s Swarm satellite constellation to study the anomaly. The Swarm satellites can identify and measure the the various magnetic signals that combine to make up the Earth’s magnetic field.In the last five years, a second centre of minimum intensity has developed towards southwest of Africa. Researchers believe that this could mean that the anomaly can split into two separate cells.

Also read: Scientists prepare a map of Antarctica turning green due to climate change

The South Atlantic Anomaly has been appearing over the last decade, but has developed vigorously in the last few years. Dr Jurgen Matzka, from the German Research Centre for Geosciences, said: “We are very lucky to have the Swarm satellites in orbit to investigate the development of the South Atlantic Anomaly. The challenge now is to understand the processes in Earth’s core driving these changes.”

One most speculated reason behind this is that there is a chance that the time for Earth’s pole reversal is coming near.

Pole reversal is when the north and south magnetic poles flip. While this flip will not occur immediately or suddenly, and will happen over centuries, there would be multiple north and south magnetic poles during this period, all around the planet.

This is definitely not the first time that pole reversal will be happening on the Earth. This event has occurred few times in the history of our planet, as per the scientists and we are long overdue by the average rate at which these reversals take place (roughly every 250,000 years).

While this is not going to affect or alarm the general public to a huge extent, it is causing technical difficulties for various satellites and spacecrafts, as the magnetic field getting weaker, charged particles from the cosmos can penetrate through to the altitudes that low-Earth orbiting satellites fly at.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.

(With inputs from agencies)

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Who Spoiled the Land and Drinking water?

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Who spoiled the sky and space and universe?

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Just Me – Me and the world

with Honest

Kavignar Thanigai.









Future Astronauts Could Use Their Own Urine to Build Bases on Moon’s Surface: Study

Future Astronauts Could Use Their Own Urine to Build Bases on Moon’s Surface: Study

Scientists have discovered that the urea present in the human urine could one day be used as a building material to make structures on the Moon. As per new study published in the Journal of Cleaner Production, urea could be used in making concrete for lunar structures. This comes at a time when researchers across the world have already been conducting experiments to determine which materials could be used to build structures on the Moon. Now, why do we need urine to make structures on the moon? Let’s look into it.

The surface of the Moon is a lot harsher than the surface of the Earth. Even the conditions are much more extreme, mainly due to the lack of an atmosphere. From extreme temperatures ranging from 120 degrees Celsius to -130 degrees Celsius, radiation, and the meteorite showers – since there is no atmosphere to burn up any space rocks that might crash, people living on the Moon will have to endure much worse conditions than on Earth. Even the buildings they live in will have to withstand such extreme conditions.

Hence, in this new study, researchers from Spain, Italy, Norway, and the Netherlands, in association with the European Space Agency (ESA), conducted a number of experiments that tested the plasticisers for materials like concrete or lunar regolith (loose material from the Moon’s surface), including urea from human urine. Plasticiser is a substance added to materials like concrete to make it flexible before it hardens. To test urea as a plasticiser, the team 3D printed small cylinders from a material similar to lunar regolith. They tested the material with urea and other plasticisers.

The samples that used urea as a plasticiser were able to support heavy weight, remain stable, and keep their shape. They were soft enough to build a structure and were able to bear heavy loads shortly after being printed without losing shape. Even in terms of compressive strength, scientists said that the samples that used urea as the plasticizer, showed a “continuous slight increase in compressive strength.”

Now, although the experiments have shown urea to be a great plasticiser for building material on the lunar surface, the scientists are still looking at how they will extract urea from urine. They are also looking at other components of urine for being used for this purpose.

“We have not yet investigated how the urea would be extracted from the urine, as we are assessing whether this would really be necessary, because perhaps its other components could also be used to form the geopolymer concrete,” Anna-Lena Kjøniksen, one of the researchers from Norway said in a statement.

“The actual water in the urine could be used for the mixture, together with that which can be obtained on the Moon, or a combination of both,” Kjøniksen said.

thanks : Gadgets 360

dedicated by
Kavignar Thanigai.

Proof of elusive modestly sized black hole found by Hubble telescope

Astronomers confirm the presence of this third type of black hole

thanks: The Week


Astronomers have found the best evidence for a black hole of an elusive class known as “intermediate-mass,” which betrayed its existence by tearing apart a wayward star that passed too close.

Though there have been a few other intermediate-mass black holes (IMBH) candidates, researchers consider these new observations the strongest evidence yet for mid-sized black holes in the universe.

So far, scientists knew only of two sizes of black holes: “stellar” black holes, with masses about 10 times our Sun, and “supermassive” black holes located at the centers of galaxies, with masses ranging from millions to billions times our Sun. But eventually, evidence began to emerge that a mid-sized, “intermediate-mass” black hole also exists.

These so-called IMBHs are a long-sought “missing link” in black hole evolution. Weighing in at about 50,000 times the mass of our Sun, the black hole is smaller than the supermassive black holes that lie at the cores of large galaxies, but larger than stellar-mass black holes formed by the collapse of a massive star, the researchers said.

“Intermediate-mass black holes are very elusive objects, and so it is critical to carefully consider and rule out alternative explanations for each candidate. That is what Hubble has allowed us to do for our candidate,” said Dacheng Lin of the University of New Hampshire, principal investigator of the study.

Lin and his team used Hubble Space Telescope to follow up on leads from NASA’s Chandra X-ray Observatory and the European Space Agency’s X-ray Multi-Mirror Mission (XMM-Newton).

In 2006 these satellites detected a powerful flare of X-rays, but they could not determine whether it originated from inside or outside of our galaxy.

Researchers attributed it to a star being torn apart after coming too close to a gravitationally powerful compact object, like a black hole.

The X-ray source, named 3XMM J215022.4-055108, was not located in a galaxy’s centre, where massive black holes normally would reside.

The study, which has been published in the Astrophysical Journal Letters, raised hopes that an IMBH was the culprit, the researchers said.

However, another possible source of the X-ray flare had to be ruled out: a neutron star in our own Milky Way galaxy, cooling off after being heated to a very high temperature, they said.

Neutron stars are the crushed remnants of an exploded star.

Hubble was pointed at the X-ray source to resolve its precise location. The Hubble Space Telescope is a project of international cooperation between NASA and ESA (European Space Agency).

Deep, high-resolution imaging provides strong evidence that the X-rays emanated not from an isolated source in our galaxy, but instead in a distant, dense star cluster on the outskirts of another galaxy — just the type of place astronomers expected to find an IMBH.

Previous Hubble research has shown that the mass of a black hole in the centre of a galaxy is proportional to that host galaxy’s central bulge.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.

Earth may have been covered by global ocean 3 bn yrs ago: Scientists

The findings could help understand how single-cell organisms first emerged on Earth, according to scientists

Earth may have been a water body three billion years ago. Source: Wikipedia

Earth may have been covered by a global ocean that turned the planet into a “water world” more than three billion years ago, according to a study published in Nature Geoscience.

The findings could help scientists to better understand where and how single-cell organisms first emerged on Earth.

According to the paper, the origin and evolution of Earth’s biosphere were shaped by the physical and chemical histories of the oceans.

Marine chemical sediments and altered ocean crust preserve a geochemical record of these histories. That is, they hold clues about the seawater that covered Earth at that time.

The authors of the paper studied about 3.24-billion-year-old ocean crust in the Panorama district of Western Australia. They analysed data from over 100 rock samples and studied the type of oxygen the ocean carried into its crust.

The researchers, in particular, studied two isotopes of oxygen — Oxygen-16 and slightly heavier Oxygen-18. They found that seawater contained more atoms of Oxygen-18 when the crust was formed over three bn years ago.

According to scientists, land masses with clay-rich soil have the capacity to absorb heavier isotopes of oxygen. Excess Oxygen-18 found in the rocks led them to conclude that there may not have been enough land to absorb the isotope.

“An early Earth without emergent continents may have resembled a ‘water world’, providing an important environmental constraint on the origin and evolution of life on Earth, as well as its possible existence elsewhere,” the scientists wrote in the journal.

However, scientists noted that the findings did not imply that Earth was entirely landless at the time. They suspect some land may have come up from the ocean, but not like we witness today.

According to scientists, the findings are a one-of-a-kind opportunity to examine clues about the chemistry of ocean water from billions of years ago.

dedicated by

Kavinar Thanigai.



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Salem is one in top list amongst 720 Districts of India. In India there are 29 states, But Tamil Nadu stands front in many aspects like the same way Salem stands first among 37 Districts in Tamil Nadu. Sailam means mountain. Previously Salem has 6 hills before it is divided with Namakkal and Dharmapuri Districts. It has huge geographical area with Water ,mountain,Industries, Forest,Agriculture,Handlooms and have so many other natural resources contains Bauxite ,Manganese, etc.

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Sailam means mountain

So the District name is derived from Sailam. (hill area). It is called Mango district, Power district, and Steel district also because it gives abundance supply of Mango, Power , and Stainless steel towards our country .Not only that Salem is have the Great water reservoir Mettur dam which is situated in the riverbank of Cauvery ,it gives water supply to all over Tamil Nadu ,At Mettur So many thermal stations and hydro power stations are situated.

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Very Important Tourist spots in Salem district are: Yearcaud  30 km away and  Historical Kailasa Nathar temple in Tharamangalam is just 21 km away. Silver wearings makings in Salem is very famous in Town and Home kitchen Grocery business in Salem Shevapet market in Salem are World famous. Periyar University and Vinayaka missions Deemed University and So many Colleges and Educational Institutions are widely spread in this district.

Salem Fly over Two tier bridges are the longest in the state with segment deck technology.

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By :Kavignar Thanigai.


TN Siddha doctor claims to have invented cure for Coronavirus

The Siddha doctor claimed that the medicine formulated by him along with his team treats coronavirus infections caused by the virus within 24 hours to 40 hours. Tamil Nadu: A Siddha doctor from Tamil Nadu has claimed to have formulated a herbal medicine that can cure Coronavirus, which was first detected in the city of Wuhan in China in December 2019 and has no effective vaccine or drug to treat it. Dr Thanikasalam Veni of Rathna Siddha Hospital in Chennai has 25-year of vast experience in field Siddha and Ayurvedic medicines.


Speaking to ANI, he said: “We have formulated a medicine from an extract of herbs. It is very effective to cure any type of viral fever. Coronavirus has no medicine. In China’s Wuhan where Coronavirus has claimed over 50 lives, experts have no idea how to cure the disease. Our herbal extract medicine is used to treat dengue, multi-organ fever and acute liver fever.


” “We want to tell the World Health Organisation (WHO) and the Chinese government that our medicine is very effective in treating multi-organ failure in corona fever condition,” he said. Also Read – AYUSH, Defence ministries collaborate to provide traditional medicine treatments Advertisement


The Siddha doctor claimed that the medicine formulated by him along with his team treats infections caused by the virus within 24 hours to 40 hours. “When we treated the dengue virus with our medicine, many patients with reduced platelets count, acute liver failure, immunity deficiency and low white blood cell (WBC) were cured within 24-40 hours,” said Veni. “In coronavirus too I am confident our medicine will be very effective,” he added.

Also Read – Ayurveda Day to be celebrated throughout the Country on 25th October Advertisement The doctor said he is willing to help the state and the central government as well as China if required. “If the Centre and state government require then I am ready with medicine. Also, if China wants my contribution I am ready to fly immediately to Wuhan with my medicine which can cure Coronavirus,” he said. Meanwhile, the Tamil Nadu Health Minister said that the state is “well prepared and is taking all precautionary and preventive steps” to tackle any possible infections. “So far, no case has been identified in the state as well as the country. I appeal to the public to not panic,” he said.


The virus, which has no effective vaccine, was reported on January 16 in Japan, the first case outside China and its territories. Advertisement Coronaviruses (nCoV) are a large family of viruses that cause illness ranging from the common cold to more severe diseases such as Middle East Respiratory Syndrome (MERS-CoV) and Severe Acute Respiratory Syndrome (SARS-CoV). A novel coronavirus is a new strain that has not been previously identified in humans. Common signs of infection include respiratory symptoms, fever, cough, shortness of breath and breathing difficulties. In more severe cases, the infection can cause pneumonia, severe acute respiratory syndrome, kidney failure, and even death.


THANKS: medical dialogues

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Why Why physicists are determined to prove Galileo and Einstein are right?Kavignar Thanigai

Scientists tested Galileo and Einstein's theories by dropping two objects inside this satellite named MICROSCOPE (artist's impression).

Scientists tested Galileo and Einstein’s theories by dropping two objects inside this satellite named MICROSCOPE (artist’s impression).
(Image: © CNES)

In the 17th century, famed astronomer and physicist Galileo Galilei is said to have climbed to the top of the Tower of Pisa and dropped two different-sized cannonballs. He was trying to demonstrate his theory — which Albert Einstein later updated and added to his theory of relativity — that objects fall at the same rate regardless of their size.

Now, after spending two years dropping two objects of different mass into a free fall in a satellite, a group of scientists has concluded that Galileo and Einstein were right: The objects fell at a rate that was within two-trillionths of a percent of each other, according to a new study.

This effect has been confirmed time and time again, as has Einstein’s theory of relativity — yet scientists still aren’t convinced that there isn’t some kind of exception somewhere. “Scientists have always had a difficult time actually accepting that nature should behave that way,” said senior author Peter Wolf, research director at the French National Center for Scientific Research’s Paris Observatory.

Related: 8 Ways You Can See Einstein’s Theory of Relativity in Real Life

That’s because there are still inconsistencies in scientists’ understanding of the universe.

“Quantum mechanics and general relativity, which are the two basic theories all of physics is built on today …are still not unified,” Wolf told Live Science. What’s more, although scientific theory says the universe is made up mostly of dark matter and dark energy, experiments have failed to detect these mysterious substances.

“So, if we live in a world where there’s dark matter around that we can’t see, that might have an influence on the motion of [objects],” Wolf said. That influence would be “a very tiny one,” but it would be there nonetheless. So, if scientists see test objects fall at different rates, that “might be an indication that we’re actually looking at the effect of dark matter,” he added.

Wolf and an international group of researchers — including scientists from France’s National Center for Space Studies and the European Space Agency — set out to test Einstein and Galileo’s foundational idea that no matter where you do an experiment, no matter how you orient it and what velocity you’re moving at through space, the objects will fall at the same rate.

The researchers put two cylindrical objects — one made of titanium and the other platinum — inside each other and loaded them onto a satellite. The orbiting satellite was naturally “falling” because there were no forces acting on it, Wolf said. They suspended the cylinders within an electromagnetic field and dropped the objects for 100 to 200 hours at a time.

From the forces the researchers needed to apply to keep the cylinders in place inside the satellite, the team deduced how the cylinders fell and the rate at which they fell, Wolf said.

And, sure enough, the team found that the two objects fell at almost exactly the same rate, within two-trillionths of a percent of each other. That suggested Galileo was correct. What’s more, they dropped the objects at different times during the two-year experiment and got the same result, suggesting Einstein’s theory of relativity was also correct.

Their test was an order of magnitude more sensitive than previous tests. Even so, the researchers have published only 10% of the data from the experiment, and they hope to do further analysis of the rest.

Not satisfied with this mind-boggling level of precision, scientists have put together several new proposals to do similar experiments with two orders of magnitude greater sensitivity, Wolf said. Also, some physicists want to conduct similar experiments at the tiniest scale, with individual atoms of different types, such as rubidium and potassium, he added.

The findings were published Dec. 2 in the journal Physical Review Letters.

Originally published on Live Science.

Smallest galaxies hosting monster black holes found

thanks to Free Press journal

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.


Smallest galaxies hosting monster black holes found

Washington: Astronomers have discovered some of the smallest galaxies known to host massive black holes, findings which may reveal how such regions of space exhibiting ultrahigh gravitational force — that even light cannot escape from — formed in the early universe. The study, published in the Astrophysical Journal, found 13 massive black holes, about 4,00,000 times as heavy as the Sun, in dwarf galaxies which are more than 100 times smaller than our own Milky Way.

According to the researchers, including those from Montana State University in the US, these galaxies are situated so far away that light from the Earth would take less than a billion years to reach them.

“We hope that studying them and their galaxies will give us insights into how similar black holes in the early universe formed and then grew, through galactic mergers over billions of years, producing the supermassive black holes we see in larger galaxies today, with masses of many millions or billions of times that of the Sun,” said study co-author Amy Reines of Montana State University. The scientists used the Very Large Array (VLA), a radio astronomy observatory located in central New Mexico in the US, to make the discovery.

Previously in 2011, Reines and her colleagues used VLA to discover the first massive black hole in a dwarf starburst galaxy in 2011. Following this finding, the scientists started by choosing a sample of galaxies from the NASA-Sloan Atlas — a catalog of galaxies made with visible-light telescopes.

They selected galaxies with stars totalling less than 3 billion times the mass of the Sun. From this pool of galaxies, they picked ones which appeared in the National Radio Astronomy Observatory’s Faint Images of the Radio Sky at Twenty centimeters (FIRST) survey — an astronomical survey of the skies above the Earth’s Northern Hemisphere made using the VLA between 1993 and 2011.

“The new VLA observations revealed that 13 of these galaxies have strong evidence for a massive black hole that is actively consuming surrounding material. We were very surprised to find that, in roughly half of those 13 galaxies, the black hole is not at the center of the galaxy, unlike the case in larger galaxies,” Reines said.

Earth’s magnetic north pole is heading for Russia and scientists are puzzled

thanks: CNN

dedicated by
kavignar Thanigai.

(CNN)Unlike its geographical poles, Earth’s magnetic poles that serve as the foundation of our navigation are actively moving.

The north magnetic pole has been slowly moving across the Canadian Arctic toward Russia since 1831, but its swift pace toward Siberia in recent years at a rate of around 34 miles per year has forced scientists to update the World Magnetic Model — used by civilian navigation systems, the North Atlantic Treaty Organization, and US and British militaries — a year ahead of schedule.
The World Magnetic Model 2020 forecasts that the pole will continue on its path to Russia, but now the speed is slowly decreasing to about 24.8 miles per year. Since its discovery in 1831, the pole has traveled 1,400 miles.
The magnetic field reverses its polarity every several hundred thousand years, where the magnetic north pole resides at the geographic South Pole. The last reversal took place 770,000 years ago.
In a new study, researchers discovered that the last field reversal took 22,000 years to complete — much longer than anticipated or expected, the researchers said.
Although some believe reversals could happen over the course of a human life, the findings don’t support that theory.
Researchers were able to study the reversal by analyzing a global survey of ocean sediments, Antarctic ice cores and lava flows. The details within those samples revealed how Earth’s magnetic field has weakened, shifted partially, stabilized and reversed over a million years.
“Reversals are generated in the deepest parts of the Earth’s interior, but the effects manifest themselves all the way through the Earth and especially at the Earth’s surface and in the atmosphere,” said Brad Singer, study author and University of Wisconsin-Madison geologist. “Unless you have a complete, accurate and high-resolution record of what a field reversal really is like at the surface of the Earth, it’s difficult to even discuss what the mechanics of generating a reversal are.”
Our planet’s magnetic field is created by an interaction between the liquid iron outer core spinning around the solid inner core. When a reversal happens, the normally strong magnetic field weakens.
Rock formation acts as a way to track the changes in the magnetic field. Lava flows and sediments record the state of the magnetic field, marking when they were created. Geologists can use the samples like pieces of a puzzle, reconstructing the history of the magnetic field. The record goes back millions of years, but it’s the most clear when looking at the last reversal.
“Lava flows are ideal recorders of the magnetic field. They have a lot of iron-bearing minerals, and when they cool, they lock in the direction of the field,” Singer said. “But it’s a spotty record. No volcanoes are erupting continuously. So we’re relying on careful field work to identify the right records.”
Radioisotope dating of lava flows and continuous magnetic readings from the ocean floor and Antarctic ice cores helped recreate a picture of the last reversal for the researchers.
Argon can be measured from the lava flows as the radioactive decay of potassium occurs in the rocks, while beryllium can be measured in the ice cores. A weakened magnetic field allows more cosmic radiation from space to strike our atmosphere, which creates more beryllium.
The actual reversal took less than 4,000 years — a drop in the bucket when compared to Earth’s timeline so far. But leading up to that reversal were 18,000 years of instability, including two temporary and partial reversals. This is twice as long as expected.
The magnetic field decreases in strength about 5% each century and signs of weakening in the field point to an upcoming reversal — but it’s hard to know when that reversal will happen.
If a reversal happened during our lifetime, it could impact navigation, satellites and communications. However, the researchers believe that we would have generations to adapt for long periods of instability in the magnetic field.
“I’ve been working on this problem for 25 years,” Singer said. “And now we have a richer record and better-dated record of this last reversal than ever before.”

Space Force becomes first new military service in 72 years

thanks : The Christian science Monitor.

With a diminutive budget and staff, Space Force is not designed to send troops to space. But it’s still a big win for the Trump administration.

The Trump administration is celebrating the launch of Space Force, the first new military service in more than 70 years.

In signing the 2020 National Defense Authorization Act that includes Space Force, President Donald Trump on Friday can claim a victory for one of his top national security priorities just two days after being impeached by the House.

It is part of a $1.4 trillion government spending package – including the Pentagon’s budget – that provides a steady stream of financing for Mr. Trump’s U.S.-Mexico border fence and reverses unpopular and unworkable automatic spending cuts to defense and domestic programs.

Space Force has been a reliable applause line at Mr. Trump’s political rallies, but for the military it’s seen more soberly as an affirmation of the need to more effectively organize for the defense of U.S. interests in space – especially satellites used for navigation and communication. Space Force is not designed or intended to put combat troops in space.

Space has become increasingly important to the U.S. economy and to everyday life. The Global Positioning System, for example, provides navigation services to the military as well as civilians. Its constellation of about two dozen orbiting satellites is operated by the 50th Space Wing from an operations center at Schriever Air Force Base in Colorado.

Did FBI try to take down Trump? Three questions about DOJ’s report

In a report last February, the Pentagon asserted that China and Russia have embarked on major efforts to develop technologies that could allow them to disrupt or destroy American and allied satellites in a crisis or conflict.

“The United States faces serious and growing challenges to its freedom to operate in space,” the report said.

When he publicly directed the Pentagon in June 2018 to begin working toward a Space Force, Mr. Trump spoke of the military space mission as part of a broader vision.

“My administration is reclaiming America’s heritage as the world’s greatest space-faring nation,” he said. “When it comes to defending America, it is not enough to merely have an American presence in space. We must have American dominance in space.”

Mr. Trump got his Space Force, which many Democrats opposed. But it is not in the “separate but equal” design he wanted.

Image result for space army usa

Instead of being its own military department, like the Navy, Army, and Air Force, the Space Force will be administered by the Secretary of the Air Force. The law requires that the four-star general who will lead Space Force, with the title of Chief of Space Operations, will be a member of the Joint Chiefs of Staff, but not in Space Force’s first year. That leader is likely to be Air Force Gen. John W. Raymond, the commander of U.S. Space Command.

Space Force is the first new military service since the Air Force was spun off from the Army in 1947. Space Force will be the provider of forces to U.S. Space Command, a separate organization established earlier this year as the overseer of the military’s space operations.

The division of responsibilities and assets between Space Force and Space Command has not been fully worked out.

Space Force will be tiny, compared to its sister services. It will initially have about 200 people and a first-year budget of $40 million. The military’s largest service, the Army, has about 480,00 active-duty soldiers and a budget of about $181 billion. The Pentagon spends about $14 billion a year on space operations, most of which is in the Air Force budget.

Kaitlyn Johnson, a space policy expert at the Center for Strategic and International Studies, sees the creation of Space Force as an important move but doubts it will prove as momentous as Trump administration officials suggest. Vice President Mike Pence has touted Space Force as “the next great chapter in the history of our armed forces.” Defense Secretary Mark Esper earlier this week called this an “epic moment” in recent American military history.

Image result for space army usa

Ms. Johnson says Democrats’ opposition to making Space Force a separate branch of the military means it could be curtailed or even dissolved if a Democrat wins the White House next November.

“I think that’s a legitimate concern” for Space Force advocates, she said. “Just because it’s written into law doesn’t mean it can’t be unwritten,” she said, adding, “Because of the politics that have started to surround the Space Force, I worry that that could damage its impact before it even has time to sort itself out” within the wider military bureaucracy.

Some in Congress had been advocating for a Space Force before Mr. Trump entered the White House, but his push for legislation gave the proposal greater momentum.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai

Wait, WHAT!! Study Reveals This Place On Earth Has NO Life

The researchers said the place was even proposed as a terrestrial analogue of early Mars.

Researchers have found an aquatic environment on the Earth with complete absence of any forms of life, an advance that may lead to an improved understanding of the limits of habitability. The study, published in the journal Nature Ecology and Evolution, revealed that any form of microbial life was absent in the hot, saline, hyperacid ponds of the Dallol geothermal field in Ethiopia. The researchers, including those from the Spanish Foundation for Science and Technology (FECYT), said Dallol’s landscape extends over a volcanic crater full of salt, constantly releasing toxic gases with water boiling in the midst of the intense hydrothermal activity.

They said it is one of the most torrid environments on the planet with daily temperatures in winter exceeding 45 degrees Celsius.

The landscape, the researchers said, had abundant hypersaline and hyperacid pools, with pH — which is measured on a scale from 0 (very acidic) to 14 (very alkaline) — even hitting the negative mark.

Earlier studies had pointed that certain microorganisms can develop in this multi-extreme environment and researchers presented the place as an example of the limits of conditions that can support life.

The researchers said the place was even proposed as a terrestrial analogue of early Mars.

“After analysing many more samples than in previous works, with adequate controls so as not to contaminate them and a well-calibrated methodology, we have verified that there’s no microbial life in these salty, hot and hyperacid pools or in the adjacent magnesium-rich brine lakes,” said study co-author Purificacion Lopez Garcia from FECYT.

The researchers found great diversity of a type of primitive salt-loving microorganisms in the desert, and the saline canyons around the hydrothermal site but not in the hyperacid and hypersaline pools, nor in the Black and Yellow lakes of Dallol which are rich in magnesium.

“And all this despite the fact that microbial dispersion in this area, due to the wind and to human visitors, is intense,” Lopez Garcia said.

The researchers confirmed the findings with several other methods including a large scale sequencing of genetic markers to detect and classify microorganisms, microbial culture attempts, using fluorescent probes to identify individual cells, chemical analysis of the hypersaline waters.

They also used scanning electron microscopy and X-ray spectroscopy to probe into the water samples looking for signs of life.

According to the researchers, the study helps in understanding the limits of habitability, and presents evidence that there are places even on the Earth’s surface which are sterile though they contain liquid water.

They said the presence of liquid water on a planet — which is often used as a habitability criterion — does not directly imply the presence of life.

thanks: News Nation

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai

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