PERU MANALUR @ KHEEZHADI SANGAM VILLAGE NEAR TO MADURAI- ASI
ASI unearths 3000-year-old city near Madurai
The Archaeological Survey of India (ASI), in an ongoing excavation project at Keezhadi, a small hamlet in Sivaganga district not too far from Madurai in Tamil Nadu, has uncovered and dusted off a crucial part of Tamil history.
At Keezhadi, an obscure village, has now become a site of historical importance as ASI has excavated one of the “biggest human habitations of Sangam Age known so far”, according to a report in The Hindu.
“Through comparative dating, we place this site to be belonging to the 3rd Century B.C., which is over 2,500 years ago. However, the exact age can be arrived at only after carbon dating,” the report quoted Amarnath, who has worked on excavations in research of Indus Valley Civilisation in parts of Gujarat, as saying.
ASI started excavating the place in February, 2015, and the project so far has been a great success. The habitations found are square shaped trenches, dozens of them, and historians are excited about the findings.
According to a report in The Better India, the settlements could belong to the Pandya era of the Sangam Age.
The report says that antiquities like glass, pearl, terracotta beads and early historic pottery has been found at the excavation site, which could help redraw Madurai’s past.
The excavation is being conducted at a private coconut farm. Who would’ve thought that a 3000 year old city was waiting to found under coconut covers.
A dead city beneath a living village
From a non-descript village, Keezhadi, has gained an indispensible place in the history map of India.
As we enter the lush coconut farm at Keezhadi, a small hamlet in Sivaganga district, the tall trees sway in the breeze. But there is more to it inside this private farm. This is the place where an important part of Tamil history is being unearthed now by the Archaeological Survey of India. A set of four dozen square trenches have been dug out, to reveal what archaeologists call as one of the biggest human habitations of Sangam Age known so far. Just peep into them and you travel 3000 years back in time! Vadivel, the site supervisor, gives us a tour of the trenches which are neatly scooped out square pits, containing parts of homes like brick walls, wells, storages and mud vaults, pottery of various kinds and purposes and shells, glass, beads, rusted old coins, weapons and small tools made of bones and Iron, embedded in layers of soil.
As we walk around the trenches, peering down into them, one of the villagers engaged in contract work to dig the place, stretches her hand out from inside the pit. “This looks like a new find,” she says holding a thin off-white bangle. “This is a damaged bangle made of seashell. And it has a design carved on it,” observes Vadivel. This is how discoveries are made at an excavation camp, unplanned and unexpected! You just stumble upon history every now and then. Ever since last February, when the ASI started excavating the place, they have found something new everyday. “This project is a huge success. It’s astounding how this place has so much to offer. It must have been a big human settlement area,” says K. Amarnath Ramakrishna, the superintending archaeologist. “Now, close your eyes and visualise a city right here,” he says. It is indeed stupendous to imagine that the trees of Keezhadi stand on an old city.
Historians are on euphoria about the major find and postulate that Keezhadi could redraw the past of Madurai and push its antiquity by well over a millennium. “Through comparative dating, we place this site to be belonging to the 3rd Century B.C., which is over 2,500 years ago. However, the exact age can be arrived at only after carbon dating,” says Amarnath, who has worked on excavations in research of Indus Valley Civilisation in parts of Gujarat.
In a year-long survey conducted in 2013, the state Archaeology department had identified nearly 293 Sangam Age towns along the course of river Vaigai. “Our field of research included areas that fell within five kilometres from the river on both the banks, starting from the place of Vaigai’s origin in Theni district to the very end of the river in Ramanathapuram district,” says archaeologist Dr. V. Vedachalam. The places were classified as granaries, trading points, ports, habitation sites and living or dilapidated temples. Excavations were carried out at Varushanad in Theni and Azhagankulam in Ramnad.
The excavation at Keezhadi has been carried out at two localities in the farm. “Both the places have yielded different items and we presume they represent a social hierarchy,” says Amarnath. The bigger of the two locations with more number of trenches is said to be a settlement of educated rich people, as many jewellery, fine game stones, semi-precious stones and a dozen Tamil Brahmi inscriptions have been found. “Even the brick structures appear more refined.” Beads of agate, Carnelian and quartz indicate that they had trade link with countries like Rome. The Tamil Brahmi letters found on pottery is all names of individuals such as, Thisan, Aadhan and Udhiran. “They are typical Sangam Age Tamil names,” says Amarnath.
The second locality has more of graffiti on pottery, bone tools and iron weapons. “We have got the fish symbol, both as an art and as a ‘sign representing a clan,” says Vadivel. Red-and-black pottery, groove tiles used for laying roofs and the typical flat brick measuring 38 centimetres are the other indications that the city unearthed belongs to the Sangam Age. “Keezhadi could as well be the ‘Peru Manalur’, the city of Sangam Pandiyas mentioned in literature,” suggests Amarnath.
The excavation project is expected to be completed by September end and after taking samples, the site will be handed over to the owners. Keezhadi is open to public and students to visit till then.
- FIRST POST
- THE HINDU
- DEDICATED BY: KAVIGNAR THANIGAI.