The images compare the composite night-time view of India in 2016 with that of 2012
thanks: Business standard
dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.
NASA on Thursday released new global nighttime images of the Earth – including a detailed view of India and its surroundings that show how patterns of human settlement changed across the country between 2012 and 2016.
The new images compare the composite night-time view of India and its surrounding areas in 2016 with that of 2012.
The two images show how cities have grown and patterns of human settlements have changed across the country during those years, NASA said.
Satellite images of Earth at night – often referred to as “night lights” – have been a source of curiosity for public and a tool for fundamental research for nearly 25 years.
They provide a broad, beautiful view, showing how humans have shaped the planet.
Produced every decade or so, such maps have spawned hundreds of pop-culture uses and dozens of economic, social science and environmental research projects.
A research team led by Earth scientist Miguel Roman of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre in the US plans to find out if night lights imagery could be updated yearly, monthly or even daily.
In the years since the 2011 launch of the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, researchers have been analysing night lights data and developing new software and algorithms to make night lights imagery clearer, more accurate and readily available.
They are now on the verge of providing daily, high- definition views of Earth at night, and are targeting the release of such data to the science community later this year
Since researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and NASA released a new Earth at night map in 2012, Roman and teammates at NASA’s Earth Observing Satellite Data and Information System (EOSDIS) have been working to integrate nighttime data into NASA’s Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and Worldview mapping tools.
The new global composite map of night lights was observed in 2016. The NASA group has examined the different ways that light is radiated, scattered and reflected by land, atmospheric and ocean surfaces.
The principal challenge in nighttime satellite imaging is accounting for the phases of the Moon, which constantly varies the amount of light shining on Earth, though in predictable ways.
Likewise, seasonal vegetation, clouds, aerosols, snow and ice cover, and even faint atmospheric emissions (such as airglow and auroras) change the way light is observed in different parts of the world.
The new maps were produced with data from all months of each year. The team wrote code that picked the clearest night views each month, ultimately combining moonlight-free and moonlight-corrected data.
Suomi NPP observes nearly every location on Earth at roughly 1:30 pm and 1:30 am (local time) each day, observing the planet in vertical 3,000-kilometre strips from pole to pole. Suomi NPP data is freely available to scientists within minutes to hours of acquisition.
Armed with more accurate nighttime environmental products, the NASA team is now automating the processing so that users will be able to view nighttime imagery within hours of acquisition.
This has the potential to aid short-term weather forecasting and disaster response.
thanks: times of India
A team of scientists seeking to restore Pluto to planethood launched a campaign on Tuesday to broaden the astronomical classifications which led to its demotion to a “dwarf planet” a decade ago.
Six scientists from institutions across the United States argued that Pluto deserves to be a full planet, along with some 110 other bodies in the solar system, including Earth‘s moon.
In a paper presented at an international planetary science conference at The Woodlands, Texas, the scientists explained that geological properties, such as shape and surface features, should determine what constitutes a planet.
In 2006, the International Astronomical Union, struggling with how to classify a newly discovered icy body beyond Pluto, adopted a definition for a planet based on characteristics that include clearing other objects from its orbital path.
Pluto and its newfound kin in the solar system’s distant Kuiper Belt region were reclassified as dwarf planets, along with Ceres, the biggest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The decision left the solar system with eight planets.
But this definition sidelines the research interests of most planetary scientists, said the paper’s lead author, Kirby Runyon, a doctoral candidate at Johns Hopkins University.
Runyon said he and other planetary scientists are more interested in a planet’s physical characteristics, such as its shape and whether it has mountains, oceans and an atmosphere.
“If you’re interested in the actual intrinsic properties of a world, then the IAU definition is worthless,” he said by phone.
Runyon and colleagues argue that the IAU does not have the authority to set the definition of a planet.
Runyon’s group advocates for a sub-classification system, similar to biology’s hierarchal method. This approach would categorize Earth’s moon as a type of planet.
That idea irks California Institute of Technology astronomer Mike Brown, who discovered the Kuiper Belt object that cast Pluto out of the planet club.
“It really takes blinders to not look at the solar system and see the profound differences between the eight planets in their stately circular orbits and then the millions and millions of tiny bodies flitting in and out between the planets and being tossed around by them,” he wrote in an email.
Gaza: Motherhood is supposed to be a wonderful experience of life, but with lack of awareness and certain societal pressures giving birth can actually turn out to be an ordeal for some women that can even result in death.
A similar shocking incident has surfaced from Gaza, where a woman died bearing the brunt for lack of awareness about contraception and family planning. She lost her life after giving birth to her 69th child at the age of just 40 years.
While the unfortunate woman is said to be the most fertile woman as per statistics, a woman from Russia going by the name Vassilyeva holds the record of giving birth to 69 children, which involved 16 twins and seven sets of triplets with four quadruplets.
she was just 40
dedicated by :Kavignar Thanigai
thanks: Deccan Chronicle
thanks: Deccan chronicle.
dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.
India’s only live volcano in the Andaman and Nicobar Islands which had started showing activity in the year 1991 after being dormant for over 150 years has once again started spewing ash, the researchers at Goa based National Institute of Oceanography (NIO) said today.
“The only live volcano in the Andaman and Nicobar islands is erupting once again. The Barren Island volcano, located 140-km north-east of Port Blair, dormant for more than 150 years started erupting in 1991 and has since then shown intermittent ctivity,” CSIR-NIO said in a statement here.
A team of scientists led by Abhay Mudholkar, from CSIR-National Institute of Oceanography (CSIR-NIO) in Goa reported that the volcano is active and spewing smoke and lava once again.
“On the afternoon of January 23, 2017, the scientific team on board CSIR-NIO’s research ship R V Sindhu Sankalp were busy collecting sea floor samples in the Andaman Basin near the Barren volcano when it suddenly started spewing ash,” the NIO has said.
“The team moved about one mile from the volcano and began closely observing it. It was erupting in small episodes lasting about five to ten minutes,” said the release.
During the daytime only ash clouds were observed.
However, after sundown, the team observed red lava fountains spewing from the crater into the atmosphere and hot lava flows streaming down the slopes of the volcano, it said.
NIO has said the volcano was revisited in the early hours of January 26, 2017 again during the second leg of the cruise led by B Nagender Nath, it said, adding the team witnessed the continuation of spurts of blasts and smoke.
“They have sampled the sediments and water in the vicinity of the volcano and recovered coal-like black pyroclastic material representing proximal volcanic ejecta.
Clouds were seen at the crater mouth where the smoke was bellowing out in otherwise clear sky,” the researchers said.