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18-year-old from Tamil Nadu designs world’s lightest satellite

thanks: Times of India

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

HIGHLIGHTS

  1. The satellite was selected through a competition called ‘Cubes in Space’, jointly organised by NASA and ‘I Doodle Learning’
  2. This will be the first time an Indian student’s experiment – a 64 gm satellite – will be flown by NASA
MUMBAI: Eighteen-year-old Rifath Sharook, belonging to a comparatively unknown town of Pallapatti in Tamil Nadu, is all set to break a global space record by launching the lightest satellite in the world, weighing a mere 64 grams.

The satellite, called KalamSat, will be launched by a NASA sounding rocket on June 21 from Wallops Island, a NASA facility. This will be the first time an Indian student’s experiment will be flown by NASA.

Top Comment

What can we say. This is something simply extraordinary. The Prime Minister of India should take notice of this boy’s intellectual ability and provide him all necessary support to continue his appeti… Read MoreZiaullah Thiruvallur

Speaking to TOI from Pallapatti, Rifath said it will be a sub-orbital flight and post-launch, the mission span will be 240 minutes and the tiny satellite will operate for 12 minutes in a micro-gravity environment of space. “The main role of the satellite will be to demonstrate the performance of 3-D printed carbon fibre,” he explained. He said the satellite was selected through a competition called ‘Cubes in Space’, jointly organised by NASA and a organisation called ‘I Doodle Learning’.

Image result for lightest satellite

The main challenge was to design an experiment to be flown to space which will fit into a four-metre cube weighing exactly 64 grams. “We did a lot of research on different cube satellites all over the world and found ours was the lightest,” he said. Rifath said the satellite is made mainly of reinforced carbon fibre polymer. “We obtained some of the components from abroad and some are indigenous,” he said.

 

Jiddu Krishnamurti…some thing different…Kavignar Thanigai.

Jiddu Krishnamurti texts Jiddu Krishnamurti quotes and talks, 3000 texts in many languages. Jiddu Krishnamurti texts

Think on These Things

Part 1

THIS MATTER OF CULTURE CHAPTER 14

HAVE YOU EVER considered why we are disciplined, or why we discipline ourselves? Political parties all over the world insist that the party discipline be followed. Your parents, your teachers, the society around you – they all tell you that you must be disciplined, controlled. Why? And is there really any necessity for discipline at all? I know we are accustomed to think that discipline is necessary – the discipline imposed either by society, or by a religious teacher, or by a particular moral code, or by our own experience. The ambitious man who wants to achieve, who wants to make a lot of money, who wants to be a great politician – his very ambition becomes the means of his own discipline. So everyone around you says that discipline is necessary: you must go to bed and get up at a certain hour, you must study, pass examinations, obey your father and mother, and so on.

Now, why should you be disciplined at all? What does discipline mean? It means adjusting yourself to something, does it not? To adjust your thinking to what other people say, to resist some forms of desire and accept others, to comply with this practice and not with that, to conform, to suppress, to follow, not only on the surface of the mind, but also deep down – all this is implied in discipline. And for centuries, age after age, we have been told by teachers, gurus, priests, politicians, kings, lawyers, by the society in which we live, that there must be discipline.

So, I am asking myself – and I hope you too are asking yourself – whether discipline is necessary at all, and whether there is not an entirely different approach to this problem? I think there is a different approach, and this is the real issue which is confronting not only the schools but the whole world. You see, it is generally accepted that, in order to be efficient, you must be disciplined, either by a moral code, a political creed, or by being trained to work like a machine in a factory; but this very process of discipline is making the mind dull through conformity.

Now, does discipline set you free, or does it make you conform to an ideological pattern, whether it be the utopian pattern of communism, or some kind of moral or religious pattern? Can discipline ever set you free? Having bound you, made you a prisoner, as all forms of discipline do, can it then let you go? How can it? Or is there a different approach altogether – which is to awaken a really deep insight into the whole problem of discipline? That is, can you, the individual, have only one desire and not two or many conflicting desires? Do you understand what I mean? The moment you have two, three, or ten desires, you have the problem of discipline, have you not? You want to be rich, to have cars, houses, and at the same time you want to renounce these things because you think that to possess little or nothing is moral, ethical, religious. And is it possible to be educated in the right way so that one’s whole being is integrated, without contradiction, and therefore without the need of discipline? To be integrated implies a sense of freedom, and when this integration is taking place there is surely no need for discipline. Integration means being one thing totally on all levels at the same time.

You see, if we could have right education from the very tenderest age, it would bring about a state in which there is no contradiction at all, either within or without; and then there would be no need for discipline or compulsion because you would be doing something completely, freely, with your whole being. Discipline arises only when there is a contradiction. The politicians, the governments, the organized religions want you to have only one way of thinking, because if they can make you a complete communist, a complete Catholic, or whatever it is, then you are not a problem, you simply believe and work like a machine; then there is no contradiction because you just follow. But all following is destructive because it is mechanical, it is mere conformity in which there is no creative release.

Now, can we bring about, from the tenderest age, a sense of complete security, a feeling of being at home, so that in you there is no struggle to be this and not to be that? Because the moment there is an inward struggle there is conflict, and to overcome that conflict there must be discipline. Whereas, if you are rightly educated, then everything that you do is an integrated action; there is no contradiction and hence no compulsive action. As long as there is no integration there must be discipline, but discipline is destructive because it does not lead to freedom.

To be integrated does not demand any form of discipline. That is, if I am doing what is good, what is intrinsically true, what is really beautiful, doing it with my whole being, then there is no contradiction in me and I am not merely conforming to something. If what I am doing is totally good, right in itself – not right according to some Hindu tradition or communist theory, but timelessly right under all circumstances – then I am an integrated human being and have no need for discipline. And is it not the function of a school to bring about in you this sense of integrated confidence so that what you are doing is not merely what you wish to do, but that which is fundamentally right and good, everlastingly true? you love there is no need for discipline, is there? Love brings its own creative understanding, therefore there is no resistance, no conflict; but to love with such complete integration is possible only when you feel deeply secure, completely at home, especially while you are young. This means, really, that the educator and the student must have abounding confidence in each other, otherwise we shall create a society which will be as ugly and destructive as the present one. If we can understand the significance of completely integrated action in which there is no contradiction, and therefore no need for discipline, then I think we shall bring about a totally different kind of culture, a new civilization. But if we merely resist, suppress, then what is suppressed will inevitably rebound in other directions and set going various mischievous activities and destructive events.

So it is very important to understand this whole question of discipline. To me, discipline is something altogether ugly; it is not creative, it is destructive. But merely to stop there, with a statement of that kind, may seem to imply that you can do whatever you like. On the contrary, a man who loves does not do whatever he likes. It is love alone that leads to right action. What brings order in the world is to love and let love do what it will.

Questioner: Why do we hate the poor?

Krishnamurti: Do you really hate the poor? I am not condemning you; I am just asking, do you really hate the poor? And if you do, why? Is it because you also may be poor one day, and imagining your own plight then, you reject it? Or is it that you dislike the sordid, dirty, unkempt existence of the poor? Disliking untidiness, disorder, squalor, filth, you say, “I don’t want to have anything to do with the poor.” Is that it? But who has created poverty, squalor and disorder in the world? You, your parents, your government – our whole society has created them; because, you see, we have no love in our hearts. We love neither our children nor our neighbours, neither the living nor the dead. We have no love for anything at all. The politicians are not going to eradicate all this misery and ugliness in the world, any more than the religions and the reformers will, because they are only concerned with a little patchwork here and there; but if there were love, then all these ugly things would disappear tomorrow.

Do you love anything? Do you know what it is to love? You know, when you love something completely, with your whole being, that love is not sentimental, it is not duty, it is not divided as physical or divine. Do you love anyone or anything with your whole being – your parents, a friend, your dog, a tree? Do you? I am afraid you don’t. That is why you have vast spaces in your being in which there is ugliness, hate, envy. You see, the man who loves has no room for anything else. We should really spend our time discussing all this and finding out how to remove the things that are so cluttering our minds that we cannot love; for it is only when we love that we can be free and happy. It is only people who are loving, vital, happy, that can create a new world – not the politicians, not the reformers or the few ideological saints. Questioner: You talk about truth goodness and integration, which implies that on the other side there is untruth, evil and disintegration. So how can one be true, good and integrated without discipline?

Krishnamurti: In other words, being envious, how can one be free of envy without discipline? I think it is very important to understand the question itself; because the answer is in the question, it is not apart from the question.

Do you know what envy means? You are nice looking, you are finely dressed, or wear a beautiful turban or sari, and I also want to dress like that; but I cannot, so I am envious. I am envious because I want what you have; I want to be different from what I am.

I am envious because I want to be as beautiful as you are; I want to have the fine clothes, the elegant house, the high position that you have. Being dissatisfied with what I am, I want to be like you; but, if I understood my dissatisfaction and its cause, then I would not want to be like you or long for the things that you have. In other words, if once I begin to understand what I am, then I shall never compare myself with another or be envious of anyone. Envy arises because I want to change myself and become like somebody else. But if I say, “Whatever I am, that I want to understand”, then envy is gone; then there is no need of discipline, and out of the understanding of what I am comes integration.

Our education, our environment, our whole culture insists that we must become something. Our philosophies, our religions and sacred books all say the same thing. But now I see that the very process of becoming something implies envy, which means that I am not satisfied with being what I am; and I want to understand what I am, I want to find out why I am always comparing myself with another, trying to become something; and in understanding what I am there is no need for discipline. In the process of that understanding, integration comes into being. The contradiction in me yields to the understanding of myself, and this in turn brings an action which is integral, whole. Questioner: What is power?

Krishnamurti: There is mechanical power, the power produced by the internal combustion engine, by steam, or by electricity. There is the power that dwells in a tree, that causes the sap to flow, that creates the leaf. There is the power to think very clearly, the power to love, the power to hate, the power of a dictator, the power to exploit people in the name of God, in the name of the Masters, in the name of a country. These are all forms of power.

Now, power as electricity or light, atomic power, and so on – all such forms of power are good in themselves, are they not? But the power of the mind that uses them for the purposes of aggression and tyranny, to gain something for itself – such power is evil under all circumstances. The head of any society, church or religious group who has power over other people is an evil person, because he is controlling, shaping, guiding others without knowing where he himself is going. This is true not only of the big organizations, but of the little societies all over the world. The moment a person is clear, unconfused, he ceases to be a leader and therefore he has no power.

So it is very important to understand why the human mind demands to have power over others. The parents have power over their children, the wife over the husband, or the husband over the wife. Beginning in the small family, the evil extends until it becomes the tyranny of governments, of political leaders and religious interpreters. And can one live without this hunger for power, without wanting to influence or exploit people, without wanting power for oneself, or for a group or a nation, or for a Master or a saint? All such forms of power are destructive, they bring misery to man. Whereas, to be really kind, to be considerate, to love – this is a strange thing, it has its own timeless effect. Love is its own eternity, and where there is love there is no evil power.

Questioner: Why do we seek fame?

Krishnamurti: Have you ever thought about it? We want to be famous as a writer, as a poet, as a painter, as a politician, as a singer, or what you will. Why? Because we really don’t love what we are doing. If you loved to sing, or to paint, or to write poems – if you really loved it – you would not be concerned with whether you are famous or not. To want to be famous is tawdry, trivial, stupid, it has no meaning; but, because we don’t love what we are doing, we want to enrich ourselves with fame. Our present education is rotten because it teaches us to love success and not what we are doing. The result has become more important than the action.

You know, it is good to hide your brilliance under a bushel, to be anonymous, to love what you are doing and not to show off. It is good to be kind without a name. That does not make you famous, it does not cause your photograph to appear in the newspapers. Politicians do not come to your door. You are just a creative human being living anonymously, and in that there is richness and great beauty.

Think on These Things

Part 1

THIS MATTER OF CULTURE CHAPTER 14

Texts and talks of Jiddu Krishnamurti. Krishnamurti quotes. Books about
J Krishnamurti. Philosophy.

Art of War

ancient Chinese treatise by Sun Tzu

free to read online

48 Laws of Power

a different universe by Robert Greene?

free summary online


ueli STECK – CLIMBING MACHINE NO MORE…..Kavignar Thanigai.

Swiss climber Ueli Steck pictured in Sigoyer, in the Hautes-Alpes department of south-eastern France, on August 13, 2015

 

The Swiss climber Ueli Steck has been killed preparing to climb Mount Everest, Nepal’s tourist office says.

Steck, who was known as the “Swiss Machine”, died in an accident while acclimatising for an attempt on the mountain without oxygen by a new route.

The 40-year-old had won multiple awards and was known for his rapid ascents.

His body has been recovered from the base of Mount Nupste, which shares a common ridge with Everest, after he was spotted by fellow climbers.

“He had an accident on the Nuptse wall and died. It seems he slipped,” Ang Tsering Sherpa, head of the Nepal Mountaineering Association, told news agency AFP.

Steck was preparing to climb Mount Everest using its West Ridge, a route which has been the cause of more deaths than successful ascents, followed by Lhotse, the fourth highest mountain in the world.

It is believed he was alone on Sunday due to his climbing partner contracting severe frostbite.

On Wednesday, Steck wrote on his Facebook page that he had a “quick day from Basecamp up to 7,000m and back” as he believed “active acclimatisation” was the most effective way of getting used to high altitude.

The climber reached Mount Everest’s summit without oxygen in 2012, and in 2015 climbed all 82 Alpine peaks over 4,000m (13,100ft) in 62 days.

Steck had returned to the world’s tallest mountain four years on from an altercation with sherpas which caused him to abandon an attempt to climb Everest and Lhotse.

In a video about his Everest-Lhotse project ahead of his departure for the Himalayas, Steck said he felt super-ready and psyched. “My body is as strong as it was never before,” he added.

Asked about his definition of success for the ambitious plans to traverse Everest and Lhotse via the Hornbein Couloir, Steck said: “If you have an accident or if you’re going to die, that’s definitely not successful, all the other things, it’s a success already.”

Why do I have to attempt Everest and Lhotse? Yet again, the answer is simple: I get to stay longer in the mountains.

“And now I’ll just go, and only worry about the events that lie ahead of me. Day by day, one by one. It is the here and now that counts. What comes next is uncertain in any case.

“Learn from yesterday, live for today, hope for tomorrow.”

Read more on Ueli Steck’s website


Last year Steck and fellow climber David Goettler found the bodies of two American mountaineers in Tibet, 16 years after they were killed by a huge avalanche.

Veteran British mountaineer Sir Chris Bonington paid tribute to Steck, describing him as “one of the great climbers of all time”. He said that Steck’s reputation for speed climbing had not necessarily put him at greater risk.

“What kills most people is the objective dangers, going into an area where there is stone fall or the threat of avalanche,” he told the BBC’s Newshour programme.

“The longer you are exposed to that threat, statistically the more likelihood there is of you being hit by one of these things. Whereas if you are moving very fast you are exposed to that danger for a much shorter time.

“But the people who are climbing at the absolute limit, which he undoubtedly was, the death rate among the very best mountaineers is very high, particularly in the Himalayas.”

British mountaineer Kenton Cool described Steck as “a true inspiration” who “showed us all what was possible in the mountains and beyond”.

The British Mountaineering Council described him as a “legendary mountaineer and all-round great guy”.

A view of Mount Everest (C-top) towering over the Nupse-Lohtse massif (foreground) from the village of Tembuche in the Khumbu region of northeastern Nepal (file photo)

Ueli Steck set new standards in alpine climbing – setting a string of records for making breathtakingly quick solo ascents of classic routes.

He also played a big part in bringing the sport to a new audience through the epic films made of his exploits.

He was nicknamed the “Swiss Machine” for his ruthlessly methodical approach and his ability to keep going even after pushing himself to the limits of human endurance.

In 2015 he climbed one of the world’s most famous walls, the North Face of the Eiger, in two hours 47 minutes – a time that would have been unthinkable to the early pioneers of the sport, who took days to complete it. In 2015, he improved on that feat with a time of two hours 22 minutes and 50 seconds.

The body of Swiss climber Ueli Steck arrives at the helipad of Teaching Hospital in Kathmandu, Nepal, 30 April 2017

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai

thanks: BBC News Asia


Kalpit Veerval…..Kavignar Thanigai.

UDAIPUR: Udaipur boy Kalpit Veerval has topped the prestigious JEE Main 2017.
Kalpit Veerval.

Kalpit is the first student to score a perfect 100%, or 360 marks, in the JEE Main competition.

A student of the MDS Senior Secondary School in Udaipur, Kalpit did not miss a single class throughout the year.

“Everyone suggested that I should go to Kota or Hyderabad for coaching, but I didn’t want to take studies as a burden. I wanted to enjoy what I learned. Thus, I decided to stay back in Udaipur and joined a coaching centre here,” Kapit told TOI.

Marks aren’t the end of the world

Though the 17-year-old was quite confident of his preparations, a perfect score was something no one had expected.

“I knew I could score the first rank but never thought that it would be the magical 360 figure,” he said.

Kalpit’s father Pushpendra Veerval is a male nurse at the Government MB hospital while his mother Pushpa is a government school teacher.

“My parents were particular about my health and made sure that I never suffered even a slight cold or cough. I used to study for 5-6 hours at home daily apart from the time I spent at the school and coaching classes,” he said

“Kalpit had been an extremely bright student who also took keen interest in extra curricular activities at school. He represented the school at national level competition of the Atal Tinkering Labs held by the Niti Aayog last year”, informs the director of his school, Shailendra Somani.

Kalpit had topped the Indian Junior Science Olympiad at the all-India level when he was in the 9th standard and cracked the top spot at the National Talent Search Examination (NTSE) in the 10th grade, reveals his mentor Mohit Wadhwani from Resonance, Udaipur.

Kalpit now desires to pursue computer science from IIT-Mumbai.

thanks
Times of India.
dedicated by:
Kavignar Thanigai.

NASA images show how beautiful India looks from space at night

The images compare the composite night-time view of India in 2016 with that of 2012

thanks: Business standard

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

2016

NASA, space, india space

2012

NASA, space, india space

on Thursday released new global nighttime images of the Earth – including a detailed view of and its surroundings that show how patterns of human settlement changed across the country between 2012 and 2016.

The new images compare the composite night-time view of and its surrounding areas in 2016 with that of 2012.

The two images show how cities have grown and patterns of human settlements have changed across the country during those years, said.

Satellite images of Earth at night – often referred to as “night lights” – have been a source of curiosity for public and a tool for fundamental research for nearly 25 years.

They provide a broad, beautiful view, showing how humans have shaped the planet.

Produced every decade or so, such maps have spawned hundreds of pop-culture uses and dozens of economic, social science and environmental research projects.

A research team led by Earth scientist Miguel Roman of NASA’s Goddard Space Flight Centre in the US plans to find out if night lights imagery could be updated yearly, monthly or even daily.

In the years since the 2011 launch of the NASA-NOAA Suomi National Polar-orbiting Partnership (NPP) satellite, researchers have been analysing night lights data and developing new software and algorithms to make night lights imagery clearer, more accurate and readily available.

They are now on the verge of providing daily, high- definition views of Earth at night, and are targeting the release of such data to the science community later this year

Since researchers from the National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration and released a new Earth at night map in 2012, Roman and teammates at NASA’s Earth Observing Satellite Data and Information System (EOSDIS) have been working to integrate nighttime data into NASA’s Global Imagery Browse Services (GIBS) and Worldview mapping tools.

The new global composite map of night lights was observed in 2016. The group has examined the different ways that light is radiated, scattered and reflected by land, atmospheric and ocean surfaces.

The principal challenge in nighttime satellite imaging is accounting for the phases of the Moon, which constantly varies the amount of light shining on Earth, though in predictable ways.

Likewise, seasonal vegetation, clouds, aerosols, snow and ice cover, and even faint atmospheric emissions (such as airglow and auroras) change the way light is observed in different parts of the world.

The new maps were produced with data from all months of each year. The team wrote code that picked the clearest night views each month, ultimately combining moonlight-free and moonlight-corrected data.

Suomi NPP observes nearly every location on Earth at roughly 1:30 pm and 1:30 am (local time) each day, observing the planet in vertical 3,000-kilometre strips from pole to pole. Suomi NPP data is freely available to scientists within minutes to hours of acquisition.

Armed with more accurate nighttime environmental products, the team is now automating the processing so that users will be able to view nighttime imagery within hours of acquisition.

This has the potential to aid short-term weather forecasting and disaster response.

 


Scientists launch campaign to restore Pluto to the planet club

thanks: times of India

Related image

 

A team of scientists seeking to restore Pluto to planethood launched a campaign on Tuesday to broaden the astronomical classifications which led to its demotion to a “dwarf planet” a decade ago.

Six scientists from institutions across the United States argued that Pluto deserves to be a full planet, along with some 110 other bodies in the solar system, including Earth‘s moon.

In a paper presented at an international planetary science conference at The Woodlands, Texas, the scientists explained that geological properties, such as shape and surface features, should determine what constitutes a planet.

In 2006, the International Astronomical Union, struggling with how to classify a newly discovered icy body beyond Pluto, adopted a definition for a planet based on characteristics that include clearing other objects from its orbital path.

Pluto and its newfound kin in the solar system’s distant Kuiper Belt region were reclassified as dwarf planets, along with Ceres, the biggest object in the asteroid belt between Mars and Jupiter. The decision left the solar system with eight planets.

But this definition sidelines the research interests of most planetary scientists, said the paper’s lead author, Kirby Runyon, a doctoral candidate at Johns Hopkins University.

Runyon said he and other planetary scientists are more interested in a planet’s physical characteristics, such as its shape and whether it has mountains, oceans and an atmosphere.

“If you’re interested in the actual intrinsic properties of a world, then the IAU definition is worthless,” he said by phone.

Runyon and colleagues argue that the IAU does not have the authority to set the definition of a planet.

There’s a teachable moment here for the public in terms of scientific literacy and in terms of how scientists do science,” Runyon added. “And that is not by saying, ‘Let’s agree on one thing.’ That’s not science at all.”

Runyon’s group advocates for a sub-classification system, similar to biology’s hierarchal method. This approach would categorize Earth’s moon as a type of planet.

That idea irks California Institute of Technology astronomer Mike Brown, who discovered the Kuiper Belt object that cast Pluto out of the planet club.

“It really takes blinders to not look at the solar system and see the profound differences between the eight planets in their stately circular orbits and then the millions and millions of tiny bodies flitting in and out between the planets and being tossed around by them,” he wrote in an email.


World Facing ‘Largest Humanitarian Crisis’ Since 1945: United Nations

World Facing 'Largest Humanitarian Crisis' Since 1945: United Nations

 

UNITED NATIONS:  The world is facing its “largest humanitarian crisis” since 1945, said the United Nations (UN), further issuing a plea for help to avoid “a catastrophe”.

Stephen O’Brien, UN’s Under-Secretary-General for Humanitarian Affairs and Emergency Relief Coordinator, said that more than 20 million people are facing the threat of starvation and famine in Yemen, Somalia, South Sudan and Nigeria, as reported by the BBC.

“We stand at a critical point in history,” O’Brien told the Security Council on Friday.

“Already at the beginning of the year we are facing the largest humanitarian crisis since the creation of the UN.”

UNICEF has already warned that 1.4 million children could starve to death in 2017. Mr O’Brien said $4.4 billion is needed by July to avert a disaster.

“Now, more than 20 million people across four countries face starvation and famine. Without collective and coordinated global efforts, people will simply starve to death. Many more will suffer and die from disease,” he added.

According to the UN, a child dies every 10 minutes in Yemen from a preventable disease, while half-a-million children under five are suffering from acute malnutrition. Some 19 million people – or two thirds of Yemen’s population – are in need of some sort of humanitarian help.

In South Sudan, 4.9 million people – or 40 per cent of the country’s population – are “in need of urgent food, agriculture and nutrition assistance,” BBC quoted the UN as saying.

The UN has described the unfolding disaster in north-eastern Nigeria as the “greatest crisis on the continent”.  Estimates in December 2016 showed that there were 75,000 children at risk of starving to death. Another 7.1 million people in Nigeria and the neighbouring Lake Chad area are considered “severely food insecure”.

Six years ago, when a famine was declared in Somalia, nearly 260,000 people died. At the beginning of March, there were reports of 110 people dying in just one region in a 48-hour period, the UN added.

dedicated by

Kavignar Thanigai.

thanks: NDTV