Home » ScienceLast Published: Tue, Nov 07 2017. 06 19 PM IST Earth will turn into fireball by 2600: Stephen Hawking
Beijing: British physicist Stephen Hawking has warned that the human race will perish on earth as growing population and massive power consumption would turn the planet into a sizzling fireball in less than 600 years.
To ensure the survival of our species for another million years, humans must “boldly go where no one has gone before,” Hawking said. Our planet will turn into a ball of fire because of our soaring energy consumption as the population soars, the world renowned scientist said in a video appearance at the Tencent WE Summit in Beijing.
Hawking appealed to investors to back his plans to travel to the closest star outside the solar system, with the hope that a habitable planet might be orbiting it, The Sun reported. Alpha Centauri is one of the closest stars to our solar system, located four billion light-years away.
Scientists believe that it may host planets that could foster life, just like earth. Hawking is backing Breakthrough Starshot, a venture to reach this system within two decades using a tiny aircraft that could travel at the speed of light. “Such a system could reach Mars in less than an hour, or reach Pluto in days, pass Voyager in under a week and reach Alpha Centauri in just over 20 years,” said Hawking.
thanks : Zee news
New Delhi: Confounding experts with his knowledge on outer space for nearly 20 years, a Russian has now baffled scientists by claiming that he lived on Mars before he was reborn on Earth.
According to his parents, Boriska Kipriyanovich was able to speak months after he was born and would often discuss subjects they had never taught him, such as alien civilisations.
By the age of two, he was able to read, write and draw.
As per a report in the Daily Mail, his mother, who herself is a doctor, said the first indication that he was special came a couple of weeks after birth, as he was able to hold his own head up unassisted.
Claiming that he lived on ‘war-ravaged’ Mars, Boriska says Martians – measuring about seven-feet tall – are immortal and still live undergound on the Red Planet and breathe in carbon dioxide.
They stop ageing after the age of 35 years, he said.
As a schoolboy, Boriska explained how the Martians had a strong connection to the ancient Egyptians on Earth and how he had once visited the planet as a pilot.
He said that life on Earth will change dramatically when the Great Sphinx monument in Giza is ‘unlocked’, adding that the opening mechanism is hidden behind an ear, the report said.
Researchers at The Scripps Research Institute (TSRI) in the US hypothesised that a chemical reaction called phosphorylation may have been crucial for the assembly of three key ingredients in early life forms.
These ingredients are short strands of nucleotides to store genetic information, short chains of amino acids (peptides) to do the main work of cells, and lipids to form encapsulating structures such as cell walls.
No one has ever found a phosphorylating agent that was plausibly present on early Earth and could have produced these three classes of molecules side-by-side under the same realistic conditions, researchers said.
TSRI chemists have now identified just such a compound: diamidophosphate (DAP).
“We suggest a phosphorylation chemistry that could have given rise, all in the same place, to oligonucleotides, oligopeptides, and the cell-like structures to enclose them,” said Ramanarayanan Krishnamurthy, associate professor of chemistry at TSRI.
“That in turn would have allowed other chemistries that were not possible before, potentially leading to the first simple, cell-based living entities,” Krishnamurthy said.
The study, published in the journal Nature Chemistry, is part of an ongoing effort by scientists around the world to find plausible routes for the epic journey from pre- biological chemistry to cell-based biochemistry.
Other researchers have described chemical reactions that might have enabled the phosphorylation of pre-biological molecules on the early Earth.
However, these scenarios have involved different phosphorylating agents for different types of molecule, as well as different and often uncommon reaction environments.
“It has been hard to imagine how these very different processes could have combined in the same place to yield the first primitive life forms,” said Krishnamurthy.
Researchers, including Megha Karki, a postdoctoral research associate at TSRI, showed first that DAP could phosphorylate each of the four nucleoside building blocks of RNA in water or a paste-like state under a wide range of temperatures and other conditions.
With the addition of the catalyst imidazole, a simple organic compound that was itself plausibly present on the early Earth, DAP’s activity also led to the appearance of short, RNA-like chains of these phosphorylated building blocks.
“With DAP and water and these mild conditions, you can get these three important classes of pre-biological molecules to come together and be transformed, creating the opportunity for them to interact together,” Krishnamurthy added.
Planet nine could turn out to be our solar system’s missing super earth — a planet with a mass higher than the earth’s, but substantially lower than the masses of ice giants Uranus and Neptune
Washington: The yet-to-be discovered planet nine may be 10 times the mass of the earth and 20 times away from the sun than Neptune, a study suggests. According to researchers, planet nine could turn out to be our solar system’s missing super earth—a planet with a mass higher than the earth’s, but substantially lower than the masses of ice giants Uranus and Neptune.
The signs so far are indirect, mainly its gravitational footprints, but that adds up to a compelling case, they said.
“There are now five different lines of observational evidence pointing to the existence of planet nine,” said Konstantin Batygin, a planetary astrophysicist at California Institute of Technology (Caltech) in the US.
“If you were to remove this explanation and imagine planet nine does not exist, then you generate more problems than you solve. All of a sudden, you have five different puzzles, and you must come up with five different theories to explain them,” said Batygin.
Six known objects in the distant Kuiper Belt, a region of icy bodies stretching from Neptune outward towards interstellar space, all have elliptical orbits pointing in the same direction, researchers said.
However, these orbits also are tilted the same way, about 30 degrees “downward” compared to the pancake-like plane within which the planets orbit the sun, they said.
Computer simulations of the solar system with planet nine included show there should be more objects tilted with respect to the solar plane.
The tilt would be on the order of 90 degrees, as if the plane of the solar system and these objects formed an “X” when viewed edge-on.
Caltech graduate student, Elizabeth Bailey, showed that planet nine could have tilted the planets of our solar system during the last 4.5 billion years.
In the study published in the Astronomical Journal, researchers wondered why the plane in which the planets orbit is tilted about 6 degrees compared to the sun’s equator.
“Over long periods of time, planet nine will make the entire solar system plane precess or wobble, just like a top on a table,” Batygin said.
The last telltale sign of planet nine’s presence involves the solar system’s contrarians: objects from the Kuiper Belt that orbit in the opposite direction from everything else in the solar system, researchers said.
Planet nine’s orbital influence would explain why these bodies from the distant Kuiper Belt end up “polluting” the inner Kuiper Belt, they said.
“No other model can explain the weirdness of these high- inclination orbits,” Batygin said. “It turns out that planet nine provides a natural avenue for their generation. These things have been twisted out of the solar system plane with help from planet nine and then scattered inward by Neptune,” said Batygin.
Being Tamilian and born from a humble Tamil Family, at Bhobal,Only 54 years old Raghu Ram Rajan going to get Nobel Prize tomorrow or coming one or two years. That is inevitable. His Father R. Govindarajan is a I.P.S Officer worked for Indian RAW Research and analysing Wing at Belgium, Sri Lanka and in India Son Became as a Economist. He completed his IIT Electronics Engineer and IIM management course and received Ph.D at IIM at U.S.A.
We very proud about him as Indian and Tamil born family’s real seed of the soil.
Raghuram Rajan among probables for Nobel Prize for economics: report
New Delhi: Former Reserve Bank of India (RBI) governor Raghuram Rajan features in the list of probables for this year’s Nobel Prize in Economics, The Wall Street Journal has reported.
He is one of the six economists on the list of probable winners complied by Clarivate Analytics, a company that does academic and scientific research and maintains a list of dozens of possible Nobel Prize winners based on research citations. The entry to the list does not guarantee that Rajan is a front-runner but he is a probable who stands a chance to win.
Rajan, whose three year term as RBI governor ended on 4 September 2016, is considered a candidate for his “contributions illuminating the dimensions of decisions in corporate finance”, Clarivate said. The Nobel Prize in Economics will be announced on Monday.
According to Clarivate Analytics, the list of possible Nobel Prize winners based on research citations include Colin Camerer of the California Institute of Technology and George Loewenstein of Carnegie Mellon University (for pioneering research in behavioural economics and in neuroeconomics); Robert Hall of Stanford University (for his analysis of worker productivity and studies of recessions and unemployment); and Michael Jensen of Harvard, Stewart Myers of MIT and Raghuram Rajan of the University of Chicago (for their contributions illuminating the dimensions of decisions in corporate finance).
Rajan, who at 40 was the first non-western and the youngest to become the chief economist at the International Monetary Fund, shot to big fame three years after he predicted a financial crisis at an annual gathering of economists and bankers in the US in 2005. He was appointed RBI governor by the previous United Progressive Alliance (UPA) government in 2013 and although he wanted a second term he was not offered an extension, which most of his predecessors got, by the current National Democratic Alliance (NDA) regime.
He is currently the Katherine Dusak Miller Distinguished Service Professor of Finance at the Booth School of Business, University of Chicago.
live mint E.Paper.
Earlier this month, NASA probes in orbit and on the Martian surface detected an incredibly bright global aurora as a powerful solar storm struck Mars. The aurora was accompanied by a powerful dose of radiation that would have posed a significant danger to humans exploring the Red Planet.
Between September 12 and 13, NASA’s MAVEN spacecraft observed the Martian atmosphere as a magnificent ultraviolet aurora 25 times brighter than any seen by the probe since entering Mars’ orbit in 2014 illuminated the planet.
The September 11 solar storm, known as a coronal mass ejection (CME), that prompted the aurora was so powerful that it was detected on Earth, despite the fact that our planet was on the opposite side of the Sun during the event.
A CME occurs when magnetic fields on the Sun explosively realign, throwing a colossal cloud of magnetized particles, also known as plasma, into space. This mass of plasma travels at millions of miles per hour and, upon colliding with a planet’s magnetic field, can trigger a geomagnetic storm, during which particles trapped in a planet’s atmosphere are released.
The release of the particles causes a reaction in the atmosphere, which triggers a release of photons that can create a breathtaking aurora. MAVEN observed the Martian aurora in ultraviolet light.
“When a solar storm hits the Martian atmosphere, it can trigger auroras that light up the whole planet in ultraviolet light,” says Sonal Jain of the University of Colorado Boulder’s Laboratory for Atmospheric and Space Physics, and member of MAVEN’s Imaging Ultraviolet Spectrograph instrument team. “The recent one lit up Mars like a light bulb. An aurora on Mars can envelope the entire planet because Mars has no strong magnetic field like Earth’s to concentrate the aurora near polar regions. The energetic particles from the Sun also can be absorbed by the upper atmosphere, increasing its temperature and causing it to swell up.”
While MAVEN and a number of other spacecraft watched the fireworks from orbit, NASA’s Curiosity rover recorded a more sinister aspect of the solar storm from the Red Planet’s surface. As the solar storm struck Mars, the rover’s Radiation Assessment Director (RAD) tracked the amount of radiation reaching its surface.
Solar storms are known to significantly heighten the amount of radiation penetrating the Martian atmosphere, and at the peak of the storm the RAD instrument detected surface radiation levels over double the intensity of any that it had ever detected since touching down on the Martian surface in 2012.
NASA is striving towards a long-term goal of putting humankind on Mars, and exposure to cosmic radiation is one of the key health issues to be faced by astronauts during any potential interplanetary mission. The agency and its partners will have to understand and cope with these radiation strikes if they hope to keep their astronauts healthy as they explore the surface of the Red Planet.
Had explorers been present on the planet at the time of such a storm, they would have been advised to seek shelter.
“If you were outdoors on a Mars walk and learned that an event like this was imminent, you would definitely want to take shelter, just as you would if you were on a space walk outside the International Space Station,” says RAD Principal Investigator Don Hassler of the Southwest Research Institute’s Boulder, Colorado, office. “To protect our astronauts on Mars in the future, we need to continue to provide this type of space weather monitoring there.”
NASA believes that the observations made in the wake of the September 11 solar storm will lead to a greater understanding of how Mars’ original atmosphere was lost to space, leaving it a dry, barren world. It will also inform scientists’ understanding of the current Martian environment, and the threats posed to future explorers by powerful space weather events.
thanks: Anthony Wood
Dedicated by:Kavignar Thanigai.