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APPENDIX IS USEFUL – NEW STUDY REVEALS….KAVIGNAR THANIGAI.

THANKS PTI, times of india

WASHINGTON: The human appendix, which is thought to be of little use to the body, may actually serve as a reservoir for beneficial gut bacteria, a new study has found. The appendix, a narrow pouch that projects off the caecum in the digestive system, has a notorious reputation for its tendency to become inflamed (appendicitis), often needing surgical removal.

Researchers from the Midwestern University Arizona College of Osteopathic Medicine in the US gathered data on the presence or absence of the appendix and other gastrointestinal and environmental traits for 533 mammal species.

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It should be very well understood that God has not created any organ in the human body which is not useful.Natanam Iyer

They mapped the data onto a phylogeny (genetic tree) to track how the appendix has evolved through evolution, and to try to determine why some species have an appendix while others do not. They discovered that the appendix has evolved independently in several mammal lineages, and almost never disappears from a lineage once it has appeared. This suggests that the appendix likely serves an adaptive purpose.

They found out that species with an appendix have higher average concentrations of lymphoid (immune) tissue in the caecum. Lymphatic tissue can stimulate growth of some types of beneficial gut bacteria.

 

 

Moon may have formed from collision of tiny moonlets, shows new study

thanks: business standard 11th Jan.2017 and Nature Gioscience

dedicated by: kavignar Thanigai.

 

Full Moon

 

Small ‘moonlets’ may have collided to form the as we see it today, according to a new study which contradicts the prevalent theory that our natural satellite resulted from a giant impact between a small Mars-like planet and the ancient Earth.

 

The study also claims that the we see now is not Earth’s first moon, but rather the last in a series of moons that orbited our planet.

 

The newly proposed theory by researchers at the and Weizmann Institute of in Israel counter to the commonly held “giant impact” paradigm that the is a single object that was formed following a single giant collision between a small Mars-like planet and the Earth.

 

“Our model suggests that the ancient once hosted a series of moons, each one formed from a different collision with the proto-Earth,” said Hagai Perets from the Technion.

 

“It is likely that such moonlets were later ejected, or collided with or with each other to form bigger moons,” said Perets.

 

To check the conditions for the formation of such mini-moons or moonlets the researchers ran 800 simulations of impacts with Earth.

 

The new model is consistent with science’s current understanding of the formation of Earth.

 

In its last stages of the growth, experienced many giant impacts with other bodies.

 

Each of these impacts contributed more material to the proto-Earth, until it reached its current size.

 

“We believe had many previous moons, a previously formed could therefore already exist when another moon-forming giant impact occurs,” said Perets.

 

The tidal forces from could cause moons to slowly migrate outwards – the current is slowly doing that at a pace of about one centimetre a year.

 

A pre-existing would slowly move out by the time another forms.

 

However, their mutual gravitational attraction would eventually cause the moons to affect each other and change their orbits.

 

“It is likely that small moons formed through the process could cross orbits, collide and merge,” said lead author Raluca Rufo from Weizmann.

 

“A long series of such moon-collisions could gradually build-up a bigger – the we see today,” said Rufo.

Rare Comet Will Be Visible From Earth For First Time: NASA

by: NDTV

Dedicated by: KAVIGNAR THANIGAI.

 

Rare Comet Will Be Visible From Earth For First Time: NASA

 

WASHINGTON:  A rare comet discovered by NASA scientists will be visible using just binoculars to skywatchers on Earth this week for the first time, before the object heads back into outer reaches of the solar system for an orbit lasting thousands of years.

The comet, C/2016 U1 NEOWISE, “has a good chance of becoming visible through a good pair of binoculars, although we can’t be sure because a comet’s brightness is notoriously unpredictable,” said Paul Chodas, manager of NASA’s Centre for Near-Earth Object (NEO) Studies at the Jet Propulsion Laboratory in the US.

As seen from the northern hemisphere during the first week of 2017, comet C/2016 U1 NEOWISE will be in the southeastern sky shortly before dawn.

It is moving farther south each day and it will reach its closest point to the Sun, inside the orbit of Mercury, on January 14, before heading back out to the outer reaches of the solar system for an orbit lasting thousands of years. While it will be visible to skywatchers at Earth, it is not considered a threat to our planet either.

NASA’s NEOWISE mission has recently discovered some celestial objects travelling through our neighbourhood, including one on the blurry line between asteroid and comet. An object called 2016 WF9 was detected by the NEOWISE project on November 27 last year.

It is in an orbit that takes it on a scenic tour of our solar system. At its farthest distance from the Sun, it approaches Jupiter’s orbit.

Over the course of 4.9 Earth-years, it travels inward, passing under the main asteroid belt and the orbit of Mars until it swings just inside Earth’s own orbit. After that, it heads back toward the outer solar system.

Objects in these types of orbits have multiple possible origins; it might once have been a comet, or it could have strayed from a population of dark objects in the main asteroid belt.

2016 WF9 will approach Earth’s orbit on February 25 this year. At a distance of nearly 51 million kilometres from Earth, this pass will not bring it particularly close.

The trajectory of 2016 WF9 is well understood, and the object is not a threat to Earth for the foreseeable future. A different object, discovered by NEOWISE a month earlier, is more clearly a comet, releasing dust as it nears the Sun.

NEOWISE is the asteroid-and-comet-hunting portion of the Wide-Field Infrared Survey Explorer (WISE) mission.

2016 WF9 is relatively large: roughly 0.5 to 1 kilometre across. It is also rather dark, reflecting only a few percent of the light that falls on its surface.

This body resembles a comet in its reflectivity and orbit, but appears to lack the characteristic dust and gas cloud that defines a comet.

“2016 WF9 could have cometary origins,” said Deputy Principal Investigator James Bauer at JPL.

“This object illustrates that the boundary between asteroids and comets is a blurry one; perhaps over time this object has lost the majority of the volatiles that linger on or just under its surface,” said Bauer.

Astroboffins glimpse sighting of ultra-rare circular galaxy- kavignar Thanigai.

A rarer-than-rare galaxy 359 million light years away from Earth has been spotted by physicists.

Hoags Object

Designated PGC 1000714 [paywalled], the galaxy is a ring-shape system orbiting a cooler centre without any connection between the two – a formation referred to as Hoag’s Object.

Just 0.1 per cent of all observed galaxies are Hoag-type systems; the majority follow the hub and spiral-arm standard like our own Milky Way or the neighbouring Andromeda. PGC 1000714 is rarer still, though.

Hoag’s Object, discovered 67 years ago by astronomer Arthur Allan Hoag and named after him, features a single ring of blue stars orbiting a yellow core.

PGC 1000714 features a second ring of blue stars with both rings orbiting a red core.

Nobody has yet managed to adequately explain the formation of the original Hoag’s Object – never mind the related-yet-different PGC 1000714, which was spotted by scientists at the University of Minnesota Duluth and the North Carolina Museum of Natural Sciences.

Burcin Mutlu-Pakdil, lead author of a paper on this work, said in a statement: “The different colors of the inner and outer ring suggest that this galaxy has experienced two different formation periods.”

Galaxy rings are regions where stars have formed from colliding gas – hence the reason for the different colours.

“From these initial single snapshots in time, it’s impossible to know how the rings of this particular galaxy were formed,” Mutlu-Pakdil said.

One possibility is that the outer ring may be the result of this galaxy incorporating portions of a once-nearby gas-rich dwarf galaxy.

The galaxy was spotted and analysed using multi-waveband images from observations in the southern hemisphere, using a large-diameter telescope in the Chilean mountains. These images were used to determine the ages of the two main features of the galaxy, the outer ring and the central body.

The outer ring is 0.13 billion years old and the red core 5.5 billion years. Higher-resolution images are needed to infer the age of the inner ring.

The original Hoag’s Object, spotted in 1950, shows a ring of blue stars spanning 100,000 light years and lying 600 million light years away in Serpens Constellation. ®

thanks : the register, Science

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

Scientists have discovered a new organ in the human digestive system.:Kavignar Thanigai.

Did you know human beings have a brand new organ? (It was hiding in plain sight)

Scientists have discovered a new organ in the human digestive system.

mesentery-new-organ_759_yt-kenhub

 

Scientists in Ireland have classified a brand-new organ inside human body, one that has been hiding in plain sight in our digestive system, proving the anatomic description laid down over 100 years of anatomy as incorrect. Researchers hope that the reclassification will aid better understanding and treatment of abdominal and digestive diseases.

The mesentery, which connects the intestine to the abdomen, had for hundreds of years been considered a fragmented structure made up of multiple separate parts. However, new research by J Calvin Coffey, Professor of Surgery at University of Limerick in Ireland, describes the mesentery as one, continuous structure.

In a review published in the journal The Lancet Gastroenterology and Hepatology, Coffey outlined the evidence for categorising the mesentery as an organ. “In the paper, which has been peer reviewed and assessed, we are now saying we have an organ in the body which has not been acknowledged as such to date,” Coffey said. Better understanding and further scientific study of the mesentery could lead to less invasive surgeries, fewer complications, faster patient recovery and lower overall costs.

“When we approach it like every other organ, we can categorise abdominal disease in terms of this organ,” Coffey said.

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According to Coffey, mesenteric science is its own specific field of medical study in the same way as gastroenterology, neurology and coloproctology. “This is relevant universally as it affects all of us. Up to now there was no such field as mesenteric science. Now we have established anatomy and the structure. The next step is the function.

“If you understand the function you can identify abnormal function, and then you have disease. Put them all together and you have the field of mesenteric science. The basis for a whole new area of science,” he said. “During the initial research, we noticed in particular that the mesentery, which connects the gut to the body, was one continuous organ. Up to that it was regarded as fragmented, present here, absent elsewhere and a very complex structure.

“The anatomic description that had been laid down over 100 years of anatomy was incorrect. This organ is far from fragmented and complex. It is simply one continuous structure,” Coffey said.

 

According to Coffey, mesenteric science is its own specific field of medical study in the same way as gastroenterology, neurology and coloproctology. “This is relevant universally as it affects all of us. Up to now there was no such field as mesenteric science. Now we have established anatomy and the structure. The next step is the function.

“If you understand the function you can identify abnormal function, and then you have disease. Put them all together and you have the field of mesenteric science. The basis for a whole new area of science,” he said. “During the initial research, we noticed in particular that the mesentery, which connects the gut to the body, was one continuous organ. Up to that it was regarded as fragmented, present here, absent elsewhere and a very complex structure.

“The anatomic description that had been laid down over 100 years of anatomy was incorrect. This organ is far from fragmented and complex. It is simply one continuous structure,” Coffey said.

 

dedicated by|Kavignar Thanigai

thanks to Indian express.Jan.4th

NEXT…

Entrance Tests Not Enough, MBBS Students Will Now Also Have To Take An Exit Exam To Become Doctors

Up NEXT.

 

In order to formally start practicing medicine, medical students will have to do more than complete a five-and-a-half year long MBBS course.

The Union Health Ministry has decided to implement a new rule in medical education through the draft Indian Medical Council (Amendment) Bill by which medical students are required to pass a common exit test before they can use the ‘doctor’ title.

The test called the National Exit Test (NEXT) “will substitute three tests, including NEET for postgraduate admissions, recruitment for central health services and the foreign graduate medical examination.” So this test will also serve as a substitute for an entrance test for those who want to pursue postgraduate studies.

Students of both government and private colleges will have to appear for the test. It is expected that the test will create a level playing field in medical education.

Medical colleges will also be rated based on the marks students score in this test.

 THANKS:the huffington post
dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.

India is top in Road accidents: kavignar Thanigai.

thanks to :NDTV

Image result for india is topper in road accidents

 

 

NEW DELHI:  The year 2014 alone witnessed 2.37 lakh road accidents on national and state highways across the country which had left at least 85,462 people dead and 2.59 lakh injured.

These were the sensational findings in official statistics placed before the Supreme Court, which noted that as per 2009 data, India had reported the highest number of road accident fatalities in the world which clearly indicated that a road accident occurred every four minutes.

India can avoid the tag of being the “accident capital of the world”, was how the top court reacted on scanning the figures of vehicular deaths over the past several years while stressing on the need for “proper enforcement” of law preventing drunken driving.

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The Supreme Court said proper enforcement of law was needed for a nation like India, which is on the cusp of economic development, to protect precious human lives from road mishaps specially due to drunken driving.

The remarks were made by the top court in its December 15 judgement by which it ordered a ban on all liquor shops on national and state highways across the country while making it clear that licenses of the existing shops will not be renewed after March 31 next year.

“Human life is precious. As the road network expands in India, road infrastructure being an integral part of economic development, accidents profoundly impact on the life of common citizen. For a nation on the cusp of economic development, India can well avoid the tag of being the accident capital of the world,” a three-judge bench headed by Chief Justice T S Thakur said.

The bench, also comprising Justices D Y Chandrachud and L Nageswara Rao, took note of the statistics placed before it by the government agencies, according to which total number of persons killed in road accidents on the national highways was 48,768 in 2012 which shot up to 51,204 in 2015.

In 2014, there were 1.24 lakh accident cases resulting in 46,110 deaths and 1.35 lakh persons injured in mishaps on the national highways while on state highways, the figure was 1.13 lakh accidents in which 1.24 lakh people were injured and 39,352 had been killed.

“The expressways witnessed 4,208 accident cases, 4,229 injured and 1,802 deaths. Figures are also available of the distribution of road accidents by causes during 2014. 1.38 lakh persons were injured in road accidents involving dangerous or careless driving and 42,127 deaths occurred.

“Injuries caused in accidents due to over-speeding stood at 1.81 lakh while there were 48,654 deaths. 7,307 accident cases involving driving under the influence of drugs/alcohol were registered resulting in 7,398 injuries and 2,591 deaths,” the bench noted in its order.

The top court further said that on December 1, 2011, the Ministry of Road Transport and Highways, in an advisory issued to Chief Secretaries of all the States and Union Territories, had noted that India had reported the highest number of road accident fatalities in the world and data of 2009 indicated that a road accident occurred every four minutes.

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It said that in the advisory, it was said that drunken driving was a “leading cause” of road accidents as 27,152 road accidents was caused under the influence of alcohol in 2009.

The bench said that in another advisory of March 18, 2013, the ministry had stated that in 2011, 1.42 lakh people were killed in 4.9 lakhs road accidents and 24,655 accidents were caused due to drunken driving resulting in 10,553 deaths and injuries to 21,148 persons.

Referring to another advisory of May 2014, the top court said that in 2012, 1.38 lakh people were killed in 4.9 lakh road accidents out of which 23,979 accidents were caused due to drunken driving resulting in 7835 deaths and injuries to 23,403 persons.

The bench observed that availability of liquor along the highways is an “opportunity to consume” and there are alarming statistics on the occurrence of road accidents which have claimed human lives and caused debility and injury.

“The figures which are available on the record indicate that the occurrence of a large number of road accidents is neither a phenomenon confined to national highways nor is prevalence of road accidents, including fatalities, confined only to the national highways.

“Both the national highways and state highways share a common experience of an unacceptably high number of road accidents, the prevalence injuries and fatalities; drunken driving being one of the major causes,” it said.

The bench observed that highways and expressways provides seamless connectivity and unheralded opportunities for growth of trade and industry and for the movement of goods, persons and capital and are the backbone of the freedom of trade and commerce guaranteed by Article 301 of the Constitution.

“Our highways are dotted with sign boards warning of the dangers of combining speed and alcohol. Together, they constitute a heady cocktail. The availability of liquor along the highways is an opportunity to consume.

“Easy access to liquor shops allows for drivers of vehicles to partake in alcohol, in callous disregard to their own safety and the safety of others,” the top court said.

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