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18-year-old from Tamil Nadu designs world’s lightest satellite

thanks: Times of India

dedicated by: Kavignar Thanigai.


  1. The satellite was selected through a competition called ‘Cubes in Space’, jointly organised by NASA and ‘I Doodle Learning’
  2. This will be the first time an Indian student’s experiment – a 64 gm satellite – will be flown by NASA
MUMBAI: Eighteen-year-old Rifath Sharook, belonging to a comparatively unknown town of Pallapatti in Tamil Nadu, is all set to break a global space record by launching the lightest satellite in the world, weighing a mere 64 grams.

The satellite, called KalamSat, will be launched by a NASA sounding rocket on June 21 from Wallops Island, a NASA facility. This will be the first time an Indian student’s experiment will be flown by NASA.

Top Comment

What can we say. This is something simply extraordinary. The Prime Minister of India should take notice of this boy’s intellectual ability and provide him all necessary support to continue his appeti… Read MoreZiaullah Thiruvallur

Speaking to TOI from Pallapatti, Rifath said it will be a sub-orbital flight and post-launch, the mission span will be 240 minutes and the tiny satellite will operate for 12 minutes in a micro-gravity environment of space. “The main role of the satellite will be to demonstrate the performance of 3-D printed carbon fibre,” he explained. He said the satellite was selected through a competition called ‘Cubes in Space’, jointly organised by NASA and a organisation called ‘I Doodle Learning’.

Image result for lightest satellite

The main challenge was to design an experiment to be flown to space which will fit into a four-metre cube weighing exactly 64 grams. “We did a lot of research on different cube satellites all over the world and found ours was the lightest,” he said. Rifath said the satellite is made mainly of reinforced carbon fibre polymer. “We obtained some of the components from abroad and some are indigenous,” he said.


Shame on Andhra Pradesh: Shooting red sander smugglers in the face is summary execution

thanks to F.Inida 08.04.15



The “encounter-killing” of 20 labourers in Seshachalam forests near Tirupati in Andhra Pradesh on Tuesday by a state-level task-force for their alleged role in red-sandalwood smuggling is one of the most intense extra-judicial killings the country has witnessed in recent years. The action killed 20 unarmed people in about an hour. This is a ferocity that is reported only from war fronts.

Media reports said the smugglers, or rather their hired workers who were cutting and transporting sandalwood trees, attacked police with sickles, axes and stones although none of them mentioned hand-to-hand combat.


Reportedly, the workers, who numbered about 150, hurled stones and sickles at the task force men. Even so, the excessive reaction in the end appeared like summary executions. Were the task-force men so ill-trained that they couldn’t find other ways to contain a mob-attack?

The Andhra Pradesh government is yet to come out with a status report and explain the need for such a brutal response and the level of casualties. After all, it was only red-sander (shorter for red-sandalwood) smuggling and not a border-skirmish with heavily armed militants or an uncontrollable riot that the task-force was sent to handle.

And this is not the first time this has happened.

It was a widely reported fact that Andhra Pradesh was fed up of red-sander smuggling and the number of labourers, allegedly most of the from Tamil Nadu, involved. State police men had been killed in earlier encounters. The state DGPhas reportedly said that about 2000 labourers, mostly from Tamil Nadu, are under custody. He also said that often the police had to use open grounds to present them before a magistrate because they entered in such large numbers. Each time, about 200-400 people were arrested in one go.

Moreover, the wood is quite precious because it fetches a lot of money in the international market and recently the state earned about Rs 1000 crore from an auction of sander seized from the smugglers.

So was this encounter a desperate action to instill fear in the labourers employed by the smugglers?

Available evidence does suggest deliberate intent.

According to this Indian Express report, seven in a heap of nine bodies, have been shot either in the face or in the back of the head.

How is it possible in an armed melee, that too one which took place in the woods, that the task force members were able to take aim at the victims’ faces and the backs of their heads? If it was indeed in self defence as they claim, where are the injuries of the task force members? Reportedly, only two of them were injured.

Do two injuries warrant a firing that killed 20 people?

The Ishrat Jahan and Sohrabuddin encounter cases had raised the conscience of the country about extra-judicial killings and earned a bad name for Gujarat. But the fact of the matter is that most parts of India are notorious for unjustified killing of people by police and security forces.

A 2013 report said 555 encounter cases were registered in four years, with the highest number coming from Uttar Pradesh.

While some argue that this is a result of a non-functioning criminal judicial system, which forces the police to take the law into their own hands to deliver justice as they see fit, others say that it is a demonstration of the highhandedness of the state.

There have been cases in which alleged criminals have been killed to mollify public anger or to weaken insurgency movements. Anyway, every encounter killing, fake or otherwise, is a blot on the country’s criminal justice system and a huge violation of human rights. If presented to the justice system, most of the victims of these encounter killings would have escaped death and some of them, even jail.

The National Human Rights Commission and the Tamil Nadu Government, where the incident has begun swelling into an inter-state issue, have taken cognisance of the encounter.

Now that the deaths have already occurred all that one can expect is a judicial investigation. The Andhra Pradesh government will be happy if the Tamil workers are scared out of their forest jaunts. But this is unlikely because it is poverty and utter helplessness that finally drive them to work for the smugglers.

If the Tamil Nadu government is serious about protecting its people, they should discourage the villagers by alternative employment and social assistance.

In 2014, the Supreme Court had issued a 16-point guideline to be followed “as the standard procedure for thorough, effective and independent investigation” which includes the recording of the tip-off, filing of FIR and investigation by an independent CID and magisterial involvement. However, the history of delivering justice on encounter killings has been rather dismal. For instance, in the 555 cases recorded during four years till 2013, only 144 had been resolved.

So, in the end, it’s the combination of scant regard for human rights, the failure of our criminal justice system and a guaranteed impunity or possibly the lure of gallantry awards, that breed encounter killings. They are not mere encounters, but extra judicial killings in which Indian citizens are summarily executed even before being legally charged with a crime.

The Seshachalam episodes shows that despite the NHRC and SC oversight, our governments are getting more and more intolerant, autocratic and rights-violativ




India lost 66 wild tigers in 2014

Tamil Nadu with 15 had the highest number of deaths

: Sixty-six wild tiger deaths were reported in the country in 2014. Two tiger deaths occurred on the last day of the year. It was the only day in 2014 when two wild tiger deaths were reported. One was at Bandipur in Karnataka and the other at Tadoba Andhari in Maharashtra.

As per statistics provided by Tigernet, the official database of the National Tiger Conservation Authority, the highest number of wild tiger deaths was reported from the forests of Tamil Nadu —15, followed by Madhya Pradesh —14. Six of the deaths in Tamil Nadu were from the Mudumalai Tiger Reserve.

The majority of wild tiger deaths was caused by poaching. The data do not give a clear figure on the number of tigers killed by poachers, but it is estimated that about 50 tigers could have been killed in this manner.

Of the 66 deaths, only one death was due to natural causes — reported from the Valmiki Tiger Reserve, Bihar. Fights between tigers, possibly for territory control, caused three deaths.

Two tigers, suspected to be man-eaters, were shot dead by police personnel. One was near Udhagamandalam on January 23 and the other near Chandrapur in Maharashtra on July 19

In the Valmiki Tiger Reserve, one cub was found dead. Wild tiger deaths were also reported from Andhra Pradesh, Assam, Kerala, Karnataka and Uttarakhand. Thirty-two deaths were reported in the first six months of the year.

The highest number of deaths was in December — 10. Wild tiger deaths had taken place during all months of the year. The first tiger death of the year was reported from the Melghat Tiger Reserve in Maharashtra on January 10.

During the year, 12 cases of seizure of tiger parts were registered. This included seizure of seven tiger skins. While three tiger skins were seized from Maharashtra, two were seized from Andhra Pradesh and one each from Tamil Nadu and Kerala.


In 2013, the number of wild tiger deaths was 63 and the highest number was reported from the forests of Karnataka —16, followed by Maharashtra, 9.

In 2014, Karnataka accounted for seven wild tiger deaths. In 2013, only one wild tiger death was reported from Tamil Nadu.


 thanks to :Environment/Science Tech. The Hindu National Kerala- kollam Report on Jan.3.2015.





During these last half-century  of my life I have seen many types of Invitation to many occasions .  Such as normally for betrothal ceremonies,Marriage invitations,New house entering ceremonies,Name suits,Ear punching etc. That too printed with many tastes: Its vary from palm leaves, small  and tiny sizes, very big sizes with so many handy works, tied with knots, with Gods pictures, with bride and bridegrooms pictures, even with political leaders photos which party they belongs, with so much of cost to refer their wealth of families, in papers, in cloths, in metal plates and so on.


Yesterday I received an invitation like Cad bury chocolate, with the same cover, inner side instead of chocolate they have kept in the same color material like chocolate with designs of  hearts printed around Tamil meanings of Marriage as per their will and wish as per their knowledge.

It is different and new to me. It was printed at supreme Lovely cards, Kodambakkam, chennai. Actually I am very fond of words and cards and new wave ideas. So ; I like this invitation of my sister’s daughter marriage  that will be held at :Bhavani, Erode Dt. of Tamil Nadu. But this card prepared by her would -be. as best complements from his friends.

This shows Chennai- capital city of Tamil Nadu always stands for the level of Cosmopolitan . There only these kinds of modern thinking will emerge and being implemented. It contains as usual Date and timings with venue as usual but with different and attractive manner.


contact phone numbers are printed under International code marks of standard of price,

Karunya bride and bride groom Jana names are affixed with heart chocolates.  They both inviting and welcomes us with these following words:

No sorry, no excuse, either rain or shine, don’t miss it,

As you are not just invited, you are truly expected.

Ingredients: 3 cups of love, 2 cups warmth, 1 cup forgiveness, 2 spoons Affection,2 spoons Hope, 1 Bowl faith, 1 barrel laughter, unlimited friends.


Recipe: (Makes two life time servings)

100% ‘WE”, 0% “I”  A lot more “OUR”, A lot less “MY”

mix love and affection in two hearts that beat as one.  Blend thoroughly with honesty and understandings.  Stir in fun and laughter. Flavour it with faith.  Bake with the warmth.  Sprinkle with lots of forgiveness. Inside these hearts you now have found…….. this awesome magical thing called….Love!

Join us & be a part of the ingredient to make this celebration delicious and memorable..


The above said words are content of that Invitation . Reception Time : 8th June 2014, Sunday 7.30pm onwards.

venue: Mahan Pasaveshwarar Thirumana Mahal, Bhavani. (Opp. to Sinthamani Petrol Bunk Road),

Wedding Time: 9th June 2014, Monday 4.45 to 5.45 am

venue: Arulmigu Sri Varadharaja Perumal Thirukovil, Periya Vadamolapalayam. Thalavaipet.

After Marriage Receiption: in the same Thirumana Mahal, at Bhavani.


All are invited.

with honest:





Alternate source: punnai

Using bio fuel to run an irrigation pump for five acres


At a time when farmers in Tamil Nadu are facing a big problem in cultivation due to frequent load shedding, a farmer, Mr. Mr. C. Rajasekaran, from Vettaikaran Irruppu of Kilvelur taluk in Nagappattinam district does not seem to worry much.

The reason is not far to seek — he is using oil from Punnai (Tamil name) tree seeds (Calophyllum inophyllum) to operate his five hp motor pump for irrigating his five acres.

His garden, which was once considered to be unfit for any cultivation, since the soil became barren after the tsunami struck, is now home to nearly 35 different tree varieties. Mango, Guavas, Lime, Teak, Cashew, amla, tamarind, and jack are all flourishing well today in what was once considered a wasteland.

Well known

While the farmer says that he was able to turn the land fertile only through organic practices, he is well known in the region for propagating the usefulness of punnai seeds.

“If a farmer has two punnai trees on his land, he can reduce the diesel cost considerably. I run the motor for about five months using the oil during summer,” he says.

The tree grows well in coastal regions. Cattle or goats do not eat the leaves thus making it easier for a farmer to grow it.

Capable of growing in any type of soil it can withstand heavy winds and produce seeds within five years after planting.

“A farmer can get four to 20 kg of seeds a year from a five year old tree. After 10 years, a tree will yield 10 – 60 kg in a year and the seed yield will be on the increase as the trees grow older. From my experience, a 25 year-old tree yields a minimum of 300 kg and a maximum of 500 kg of seeds,” says Mr. Rajasekaran.

The trees attract lot of honey bees and bats. While the bees help to pollinate the bats eat the fruits and the seeds scatter all over the area through their droppings.


“My daily job in the morning is to collect the seeds and dry them for a week, after which they are broken open to expose the kernel. The kernel is further dried for 10 days before oil extraction,” he adds.

From one kg of seed kernel about 750 to 800 ml of oil can be extracted and the cost of producing a litre of oil works out to Rs.10.

“I operate the pump only during summer, for about five months in a year to be precise and for that my requirement is 600 ml of oil for an hour every day. Previously while using diesel my requirement was 900 ml for the same duration of time.

In a year I am able to get 75 litres. The surplus oil is sold to other farmers at Rs. 42 a litre. After extracting the oil, the cake is used as manure for crops,” he explains.

No problem

According to the farmer there is no rust formation in the engine and it emits little noise during operation. For the last four years he has been using this oil to run his motor and till date seems to have not faced any problem with the engine.

“I find there is no remarkable difference between a punnai oil and diesel run five Hp motor engine. Both pump 750ml of water in a minute. In fact the engine running on the oil emits less smoke unlike the diesel operated one,” he says.

Unlike casuarina or teak, punnai trees are not normally planted by farmers. The few trees found in some places have been growing there for years similar to the palm trees one finds on the rural roadside.


“But the benefits from the tree are quite remarkable in terms of bio energy. It is the job of the state Agriculture University and Government to popularise this tree among farmers and encourage them to plant it.

“If done, in two years or at most in another 10 years we might not face the same power problem we are facing now if all our farmers become aware about this tree he says,” with a smile.

Every day his farm draws several visitors who are eager to know more about the oil and its use for their machines.

For more details interested farmers can contact Mr. C. Rajasekaran, Kandaiyankaadu village, Vettaikaaranirruppu Panchayat, Kivalur Taluk, Nagappattinam District, Mobile: 97510 02370.

COURTESY: The Hindu April 1.





If liver has the capacity to regenerate then why does one need to have liver transplantation?




Liver regeneration is a misnomer because the removed liver will not grow back, not the same sort of regeneration as we see in echinoderms such as the Sea Star where the cut off arm grows into a new arm and also the regeneration of limbs in amphibian models.

Liver regeneration is a complex, evolutionarily conserved process. In case of humans, the liver actually hypertrophies by increasing the number of liver cells thereby increasing the size of the liver. It is the division of mature functioning cells of the remnant liver through hyperplastic response instead of recruitment of liver stem cells or progenitor cells.

During this process, the proliferation stops once the liver has attained its original size which is highly regulated and determined by the demands of the organism. Our body knows the size of the liver that it needs to carry out the normal metabolism.

Though liver has the capacity to regenerate, in certain cases liver transplantation is the only way to prolong one’s life. Biliary atresia in children and cirrhosis in adults require a liver transplantation for survival. Cirrhosis is the final phase of chronic liver disease with scarring of the liver and poor liver function.

The most common causes of cirrhosis are hepatitis B or C infection and alcohol abuse along with a few less common causes. Biliary atresia is a blockage in the ducts that carry bile from the liver to the gallbladder. Biliary atresia leads to liver damage which is deadly if not treated.

Living donor liver transplant and cadaverous liver transplant are the liver transplant methods. In living donor liver transplantation, a piece of liver is removed from a living donor and transplanted into a recipient whereas in cadaverous liver transplantation, the liver from brain-dead patients are transplanted into the recipients.

Both the donor and the recipient body send signals to the liver to remodel and grow to its normal size. These events occur so quickly within a week or so and continue to do so over six months to a year. For quicker and successful regeneration both have to be supplied with a lot of extra nutrients after the surgery. Regeneration is required even in cadaverous liver transplantation due to the loss of liver cells from ischaemic injury to the graft.


courtesy: GOUTHAMI REDDY -Hyderabad.


Research Fellow

Department of Biotechnology

Bharathiar University

Coimbatore, Tamil Nadu